Book of Deuteronomy, The Book of Deuteronomy Commentary Bible Study

Book of Deuteronomy, The Book of Deuteronomy Commentary, Bible Study

"I was the mediator and stood between the Lord and you at that time, to shew you his words, for you feared the fire, and went not up into the mountain."
Book Of Deuteronomy

Chapter 1

A repetition of what passed at Sinai and Cadesbarne: and of the people's murmuring and their punishment.

1 These are the words, which Moses spoke to all Israel beyond the Jordan, in the plain wilderness, over against the Red Sea, between Pharan and Thophel and Laban and Haseroth, where there is very much gold: 2 Eleven days' journey from Horeb by the way of Mount Seir to Cadesbarne. 3 In the fortieth year, the eleventh month, the first day of the month, Moses spoke to the children of Israel all that the Lord had commanded him to say to them: 4 After that he had slain Sehon king of the Amorrhites, who dwelt in Hesebon: and Og king of Basan who abode in Astaroth, and in Edrai, 5 Beyond the Jordan in the land of Moab. And Moses began to expound the law, and to say:

6 The Lord our God spoke to us in Horeb, saying: You have stayed long enough in this mountain: 7 Turn you, and come to the mountain of the Amorrhites, and to the other places that are next to it, the plains and the hills and the vales towards the south, and by the sea shore, the land of the Chanaanites, and of Libanus, as far as the great river Euphrates. 8 Behold, said he, I have delivered it to you: go in and possess it, concerning which the Lord swore to your fathers Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, that he would give it to them, and to their seed after them. 9 And I said to you at that time: 10 I alone am not able to bear you: for the Lord your God hath multiplied you, and you are this day as the stars of heaven, for multitude.

11 (The Lord God of your fathers add to this number many thousands, and bless you as he hath spoken.) 12 I alone am not able to bear your business, and the charge of you and your differences. 13 Let me have from among you wise and understanding men, and such whose conversation is approved among your tribes, that I may appoint them your rulers. 14 Then you answered me: The thing is good which thou meanest to do. 15 And I took out of your tribes men wise and honourable, and appointed them rulers, tribunes, and centurions, and officers over fifties, and over tens, who might teach you all things.

16 And I commanded them, saying: Hear them, and judge that which is just: whether he be one of your country, or a stranger. 17 There shall be no difference of persons, you shall hear the little as well as the great: neither shall you respect any man's person, because it is the judgment of God. And if any thing seem hard to you, refer it to me, and I will hear it. 18 And I commanded you all things that you were to do. 19 And departing from Horeb, we passed through the terrible and vast wilderness, which you saw, by the way of the mountain of the Amorrhite, as the Lord our God had commanded us. And when we were come into Cadesbarne, 20 I said to you: You are come to the mountain of the Amorrhite, which the Lord our God will give to us.

21 See the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee: go up and possess it, as the Lord our God hath spoken to thy fathers: fear not, nor be any way discouraged. 22 And you came all to me, and said: Let us send men who may view the land, and bring us word what way we shall go up, and to what cities we shall go. 23 And because the saying pleased me, I sent of you twelve men, one of every tribe: 24 Who, when they had set forward and had gone up to the mountains, came as far as the valley of the cluster: and having viewed the land, 25 Taking of the fruits thereof, to shew its fertility, they brought them to us, and said: The land is good, which the Lord our God will give us.

26 And you would not go up, but being incredulous to the word of the Lord our God, 27 You murmured in your tents, and said: The Lord hateth us, and therefore he hath brought us out of the land of Egypt, that he might deliver us into the hand of the Amorrhite, and destroy us. 28 Whither shall we go up? the messengers have terrified our hearts, saying: The multitude is very great, and taller than we: the cities are great, and walled up to the sky, we have seen the sons of the Enacims there. 29 And I said to you: Fear not, neither be ye afraid of them: 30 The Lord God, who is your leader, himself will fight for you, as he did in Egypt in the sight of all.

28 "Walled up to the sky"... A figurative expression, signifying the walls to be very high.

31 And in the wilderness (as thou hast seen) the Lord thy God hath carried thee, as a man is wont to carry his little son, all the way that you have come, until you came to this place. 32 And yet for all this you did not believe the Lord your God, 33 Who went before you in the way, and marked out the place, wherein you should pitch your tents, in the night shewing you the way by fire, and in the day by the pillar of a cloud. 34 And when the Lord had heard the voice of your words, he was angry and swore, and said: 35 Not one of the men of this wicked generation shall see the good land, which I promised with an oath to your fathers:

36 Except Caleb the son of Jephone: for he shall see it, and to him I will give the land that he hath trodden upon, and to his children, because he hath followed the Lord. 37 Neither is his indignation against the people to be wondered at, since the Lord was angry with me also on your account, and said: Neither shalt thou go in thither. 38 But Josue the son of Nun, thy minister, he shall go in for thee: exhort and encourage him, and he shall divide the land by lot to Israel. 39 Your children, of whom you said that they should be led away captives, and your sons who know not this day the difference of good and evil, they shall go in: and to them I will give the land, and they shall possess it. 40 But return you and go into the wilderness by the way of the Red Sea.

41 And you answered me: We have sinned against the Lord: we will go up and fight, as the Lord our God hath commanded. And when you went ready armed unto the mountain, 42 The Lord said to me: Say to them: Go not up, and fight not, for I am not with you: lest you fall before your enemies. 43 I spoke, and you hearkened not: but resisting the commandment of the Lord, and swelling with pride, you went up into the mountain. 44 And the Amorrhite that dwelt in the mountains coming out, and meeting you, chased you, as bees do: and made slaughter of you from Seir as far as Horma. 45 And when you returned and wept before the Lord, he heard you not, neither would he yield to; your voice.

46 So you abode in Cadesbarne a long time.


Chapter 2

They are forbid to fight against the Edomites, Moabites, and Ammonites. Their victory over Sehon king of Hesebon.

1 And departing from thence we came into the wilderness that leadeth to the Red Sea, as the Lord had spoken to me: and we compassed mount Seir a long time. 2 And the Lord said to me: 3 You have compassed this mountain long enough: go toward the north: 4 And command thou the people, saying: You shall pass by the borders of your brethren the children of Esau, who dwell in Seir, and they will be afraid of you. 5 Take ye then good heed that you stir not against them. For I will not give you of their land so much as the step of one foot can tread upon, because I have given mount Seir to Esau, for a possession.

6 You shall buy meats of them for money and shall eat: you shall draw waters for money, and shall drink. 7 The Lord thy God hath blessed thee in every work of thy hands: the Lord thy God dwelling with thee, knoweth thy journey, how thou hast passed through this great wilderness, for forty years, and thou hast wanted nothing. 8 And when we had passed by our brethren the children of Esau, that dwelt in Seir, by the way of the plain from Elath and from Asiongaber, we came to the way that leadeth to the desert of Moab. 9 And the Lord said to me: Fight not against the Moabites, neither go to battle against them: for I will not give thee any of their land, because I have given Ar to the children of Lot in possession. 10 The Emims first were the inhabitants thereof, a people great, and strong, and so tall, that like the race of the Enacims,

11 They were esteemed as giants, and were like the sons of the Enacims. But the Moabites call them Emims. 12 The Horrhites also formerly dwelt in Seir: who being driven out and destroyed, the children of Esau dwelt there, as Israel did in the land of his possession, which the Lord gave him. 13 Then rising up to pass the torrent Zared, we came to it. 14 And the time that we journeyed from Cadesbarne till we passed over the torrent Zared, was thirty-eight years: until all the generation of the men that were fit for war was consumed out of the camp, as the Lord had sworn: 15 For his hand was against them, that they should perish from the midst of the camp.

16 And after all the fighting men were dead, 17 The Lord spoke to me, saying: 18 Thou shalt pass this day the borders of Moab, the city named Ar: 19 And when thou comest nigh the frontiers of the children of Ammon, take heed thou fight not against them, nor once move to battle: for I will not give thee of the land of the children of Ammon, because I have given it to the children of Lot for a possession. 20 It was accounted a land of giants: and giants formerly dwelt in it, whom the Ammonites call Zomzommims,

21 A people great and many, and of tall stature, like the Enacims whom the Lord destroyed before their face: and he made them to dwell in their stead, 22 As he had done in favour of the children of Esau, that dwell in Seir, destroying the Horrhites, and delivering their land to them, which they possess to this day. 23 The Hevites also, that dwelt in Haserim as far as Gaza, were expelled by the Cappadocians: who came out of Cappadocia, and destroyed them, and dwelt in their stead. 24 Arise ye, and pass the torrent Arnon: Behold I have delivered into thy hand Sehon king of Hesebon the Amorrhite, and begin thou to possess his land and make war against him. 25 This day will I begin to send the dread and fear of thee upon the nations that dwell under the whole heaven: that when they hear thy name they may fear and tremble, and be in pain like women in travail.

26 So I sent messengers from the wilderness of Cademoth to Sehon the king of Hesebon with peaceable words, saying: 27 We will pass through thy land, we will go along by the highway: we will not turn aside neither to the right hand nor to the left. 28 Sell us meat for money, that we may eat: give us water for money and so we will drink. We only ask that thou wilt let us pass through, 29 As the children of Esau have done, that dwell in Seir, and the Moabites, that abide in Ar: until we come to the Jordan, and pass to the land which the Lord our God will give us. 30 And Sehon the king of Hesebon would not let us pass: because the Lord thy God had hardened his spirit, and fixed his heart, that he might be delivered into thy hands, as now thou seest.

30 "Hardened"... That is, in punishment of his past sins he left him to his own stubborn and perverse disposition, which drew him to his ruin. See the note on Ex. 7. 3.

31 And the Lord said to me: Behold I have begun to deliver unto thee Sehon and his land, begin to possess it. 32 And Sehon came out to meet us with all his people to fight at Jasa. 33 And the Lord our God delivered him to us: and we slew him with his sons and all his people. 34 And we took all his cities at that time, killing the inhabitants of them, men and women and children. We left nothing of them: 35 Except the cattle which came to the share of them that took them: and the spoils of the cities, which we took:

36 From Aroer, which is upon the bank of the torrent Amen, a town that is situate in a valley, as far as Galaad. There was not a village or city, that escaped our hands: the Lord our God delivered all unto us: 37 Except the land of the children of Ammon, to which we approached not: and all that border upon the torrent Jeboc, and the cities in the mountains, and all the places which the Lord our God forbade us.


Chapter 3

The victory over Og king of Basan. Ruben, Gad, and half the tribe of Manasses receive their possession on the other side of Jordan.

1 Then we turned and went by the way of Basan: and Og the king of Basan came out to meet us with his people to fight in Edrai. 2 And the Lord said to me: Fear him not: because he is delivered into thy hand, with all his people and his land: and thou shalt do to him as thou hast done to Sehon king of the Amorrhites, that dwelt in Hesebon. 3 So the Lord our God delivered into our hands, Og also the king of Basan, and all his people: and we utterly destroyed them, 4 Wasting all his cities at one time, there was not a town that escaped us: sixty cities, all the country of Argob the kingdom of Og in Basan. 5 All the cities were fenced with very high walls, and with gates and bars, besides innumerable towns that had no walls.

6 And we utterly destroyed them, as we had done to Sehon the king of Hesebon, destroying every city, men and women and children: 7 But the cattle and the spoils of the cities we took for our prey. 8 And we took at that time the land out of the hand of the two kings of the Amorrhites, that were beyond the Jordan: from the torrent Amen unto the mount Hermon, 9 Which the Sidonians call Sarion, and the Amorrhites Sanir: 10 All the cities that are situate in the plain, and all the land of Galaad and Basan as far as Selcha and Edrai, cities of the kingdom of Og in Basan.

11 For only Og king of Basan remained of the race of the giants. His bed of iron is shewn, which is in Rabbath of the children of Ammon, being nine cubits long, and four broad after the measure of the cubit of a man's hand. 12 And we possessed the land at that time from Aroer, which is upon the bank of the torrent Amen, unto the half of mount Galaad: and I gave the cities thereof to Ruben and Gad. 13 And I delivered the other part of Galaad, and all Basan the kingdom of Og to the half tribe of Manasses, all the country of Argob: and all Basan is called the Land of giants. 14 Jair the son of Manasses possessed all the country of Argob unto the borders of Gessuri, and Machati. And he called Basan by his own name, Havoth Jair, that is to say, the towns of Jair, until this present day. 15 To Machir also I gave Galaad.

16 And to the tribes of Ruben and Gad I gave of the land of Galaad as far as the torrent Amen, half the torrent, and the confines even unto the torrent Jeboc, which is the border of the children of Ammon: 17 And the plain of the wilderness, and the Jordan, and the borders of Cenereth unto the sea of the desert, which is the most salt sea, to the foot of mount Phasga eastward. 18 And I commanded you at that time, saying: The Lord your God giveth you this land for an inheritance, go ye well appointed before your brethren the children of Israel, all the strong men of you, 19 Leaving your wives and children and cattle. For I know you have much cattle, and they must remain in the cities, which I have delivered to you. 20 Until the Lord give rest to your brethren, as he hath given to you: and they also possess the land, which he will give them beyond the Jordan: then shall every man return to his possession, which I have given you.

21 I commanded Josue also at that time, saying: Thy eyes have seen what the Lord your God hath done to these two kings: so will he do to all the kingdoms to which thou shalt pass. 22 Fear them not: for the Lord your God will fight for you. 23 And I besought the Lord at that time, saying: 24 Lord God, thou hast begun to shew unto thy servant thy greatness, and most mighty hand, for there is no other God either in heaven or earth, that is able to do thy works, or to be compared to thy strength. 25 I will pass over therefore, and will see this excellent land beyond the Jordan, and this goodly mountain, and Libanus.

26 And the Lord was angry with me on your account and heard me not, but said to me: It is enough: speak no more to me of this matter. 27 Go up to the top of Phasga, and cast thy eyes round about to the west, and to the north, and to the south, and to the east, and behold it, for thou shalt not pass this Jordan. 28 Command Josue, and encourage and strengthen him: for he shall go before this people, and shall divide unto them the land which thou shalt see. 29 And we abode in the valley over against the temple of Phogor.


Chapter 4

Moses exhorteth the people to keep God's commandments: particularly to fly idolatry. Appointeth three cities of refuge, on that side of the Jordan.

1 And now, O Israel, hear the commandments and judgments which I teach thee: that doing them, thou mayst live, and entering in mayst possess the land which the Lord the God of your fathers will give you. 2 You shall not add to the word that I speak to you, neither shall you take away from it: keep the commandments of the Lord your God which I command you. 3 Your eyes have seen all that the Lord hath done against Beelphegor, how he hath destroyed all his worshippers from among you. 4 But you that adhere to the Lord your God, are all alive until this present day. 5 You know that I have taught you statutes and justices, as the Lord my God hath commanded me: so shall you do them in the land which you shall possess:

6 And you shall observe, and fulfill them in practice. For this is your wisdom, and understanding in the sight of nations, that hearing all these precepts, they may say: Behold a wise and understanding people, a great nation. 7 Neither is there any other nation so great, that hath gods so nigh them, as our God is present to all our petitions. 8 For what other nation is there so renowned that hath ceremonies, and just judgments, and all the law, which I will set forth this day before your eyes? 9 Keep thyself therefore, and thy soul carefully. Forget not the words that thy eyes have seen, and let them not go out of thy heart all the days of thy life. Thou shalt teach them to thy sons and to thy grandsons, 10 From the day in which thou didst stand before the Lord thy God in Horeb, when the Lord spoke to me, saying: Call together the people unto me, that they may hear my words, and may learn to fear me all the time that they live on the earth, and may teach their children.

11 And you came to the foot of the mount, which burned even unto heaven: and there was darkness, and a cloud and obscurity in it. 12 And the Lord spoke to you from the midst of the fire. You heard the voice of his words, but you saw not any form at all. 13 And he shewed you his covenant, which he commanded you to do, and the ten words that he wrote in two tables of stone. 14 And he commanded me at that time that I should teach you the ceremonies and judgments which you shall do in the land, that you shall possess. 15 Keep therefore your souls carefully. You saw not any similitude in the day that the Lord God spoke to you in Horeb from the midst of the fire:

16 Lest perhaps being deceived you might make you a graven similitude, or image of male or female, 17 The similitude of any beasts, that are upon the earth, or of birds, that fly under heaven, 18 Or of creeping things, that move on the earth, or of fishes, that abide in the waters under the earth: 19 Lest perhaps lifting up thy eyes to heaven, thou see the sun and the moon, and all the stars of heaven, and being deceived by error thou adore and serve them, which the Lord thy God created for the service of all the nations, that are under heaven. 20 But the Lord hath taken you and brought you out of the iron furnace of Egypt, to make you his people of inheritance, as it is this present day.

21 And the Lord was angry with me for your words, and he swore that I should not pass over the Jordan, nor enter into the excellent land, which he will give you. 22 Behold I die in this land, I shall not pass over the Jordan: you shall pass, and possess the goodly land. 23 Beware lest thou ever forget the covenant of the Lord thy God, which he hath made with thee: and make to thyself a graven likeness of those things which the Lord hath forbid to be made: 24 Because the Lord thy God is a consuming fire, a jealous God. 25 If you shall beget sons and grandsons, and abide in the land, and being deceived, make to yourselves any similitude, committing evil before the Lord your God, to provoke him to wrath:

26 I call this day heaven and earth to witness, that you shall quickly perish out of the land, which, when you have passed over the Jordan, you shall possess. You shall not dwell therein long, but the Lord will destroy you, 27 And scatter you among all nations, and you shall remain a few among the nations, to which the Lord shall lead you. 28 And there you shall serve gods, that were framed with men's hands: wood and stone, that neither see, nor hear, nor eat, nor smell. 29 And when thou shalt seek there the Lord thy God, thou shalt find him: yet so, if thou seek him with all thy heart, and all the affliction of thy soul. 30 After all the things aforesaid shall and thee, in the latter time thou shalt return to the Lord thy God, and shalt hear his voice.

31 Because the Lord thy God is a merciful God: he will not leave thee, nor altogether destroy thee, nor forget the covenant, by which he swore to thy fathers. 32 Ask of the days of old, that have been before thy time from the day that God created man upon the earth, from one end of heaven to the other end thereof, if ever there was done the like thing, or it hath been known at any time, 33 That a people should hear the voice of God speaking out of the midst of fire, as thou hast heard, and lived: 34 If God ever did so as to go, and take to himself a nation out of the midst of nations by temptations, signs, and wonders, by fight, and a strong hand, and stretched out arm, and horrible visions according to all the things that the Lord your God did for you in Egypt, before thy eyes. 35 That thou mightest know that the Lord he is God, and there is no other besides him.

36 From heaven he made thee to hear his voice, that he might teach thee. And upon earth he shewed thee his exceeding great fire, and thou didst hear his words out of the midst of the fire, 37 Because he loved thy fathers, and chose their seed after them. And he brought thee out of Egypt, going before thee with his great power, 38 To destroy at thy coming very great nations, and stronger than thou art, and to bring thee in, and give thee their land for a possession, as thou seest at this present day. 39 Know therefore this day, and think in thy heart that the Lord he is God in heaven above, and in the earth beneath, and there is no other. 40 Keep his precepts and commandments, which I command thee: that it may be well with thee, and thy children after thee, and thou mayst remain a long time upon the land, which the Lord thy God will give thee.

41 Then Moses set aside three cities beyond the Jordan at the east side, 42 That any one might flee to them who should kill his neighbour unwillingly, and was not his enemy a day or two before, and that he might escape to some one of these cities: 43 Bosor in the wilderness, which is situate in the plains of the tribe of Ruben: and Ramoth in Galaad, which is in the tribe of Gad: and Golan in Basan, which is in the tribe of Manasses. 44 This is the law, that Moses set before the children of Israel, 45 And these are the testimonies and ceremonies and judgments, which he spoke to the children of Israel, when they came out of Egypt,

46 Beyond the Jordan in the valley over against the temple of Phogor, in the land of Sehon king of the Amorrhites, that dwelt in Hesebon, whom Moses slew. And the children of Israel coming out of Egypt, 47 Possessed his land, and the land of Og king of Basan, of the two kings of the Amorrhites, who were beyond the Jordan towards the rising of the sun: 48 From Aroer, which is situate upon the bank of the torrent Amen, unto mount Sion, which is also called Hermon, 49 All the plain beyond the Jordan at the east side, unto the see of the wilderness, and unto the foot of mount Phasga.


Chapter 5

The ten commandments are repeated and explained.

1 And Moses called all Israel, and said to them: Hear, O Israel, the ceremonies and judgments, which I speak in your ears this day: learn them, and fulfill them in work. 2 The Lord our God made a covenant with us in Horeb. 3 He made not the covenant with our fathers, but with us, who are now present and living. 4 He spoke to us face to face in the mount out of the midst of fire. 5 I was the mediator and stood between the Lord and you at that time, to shew you his words, for you feared the fire, and went not up into the mountain, and he said:

6 I am the Lord thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. 7 Thou shalt not have strange gods in my sight. 8 Thou shalt not make to thyself a graven thing, nor the likeness of any things, that are in heaven above, or that are in the earth beneath, or that abide in the waters under the earth. 9 Thou shalt not adore them, and thou shalt not serve them. For I am the Lord thy God, a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon their children unto the third and fourth generation, to them that hate me, 10 And shewing mercy unto many thousands, to them that love me, and keep my commandments.

11 Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain: for he shall not be unpunished that taketh his name upon a vain thing. 12 Observe the day of the sabbath, to sanctify it, as the Lord thy God hath commanded thee. 13 Six days shalt thou labour, and shalt do all thy works. 14 The seventh is the day of the sabbath, that is, the rest of the Lord thy God. Thou shalt not do any work therein, thou nor thy son nor thy daughter, nor thy manservant nor thy maidservant, nor thy ox, nor thy ass, nor any of thy beasts, nor the stranger that is within thy gates: that thy manservant and thy maidservant may rest, even as thyself. 15 Remember that thou also didst serve in Egypt, and the Lord thy God brought thee out from thence with a strong hand, and a stretched out arm. Therefore hath he commanded thee that thou shouldst observe the sabbath day.

16 Honour thy father and mother, as the Lord thy God hath commanded thee, that thou mayst live a long time, and it may be well with thee in the land, which the Lord thy God will give thee. 17 Thou shalt not kill. 18 Neither shalt thou commit adultery. 19 And thou shalt not steal. 20 Neither shalt thou bear false witness against thy neighbour.

21 Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife: nor his house, nor his field, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is his. 22 These words the Lord spoke to all the multitude of you in the mountain, out of the midst of the fire and the cloud, and the darkness, with a loud voice, adding nothing more: and he wrote them in two tables of stone, which he delivered unto me. 23 But you, after you heard the voice out of the midst of the darkness, and saw the mountain burn, came to me, all the princes of the tribes and the elders, and you said: 24 Behold the Lord our God hath shewn us his majesty and his greatness, we have heard his voice out of the midst of the fire, and have proved this day that God speaking with man, man hath lived. 25 Why shall we die therefore, and why shall this exceeding great fire consume us: for if we hear the voice of the Lord our God any more, we shall die.

26 What is all flesh, that it should hear the voice of the living God, who speaketh out of the midst of the fire, as we have heard, and be able to live? 27 Approach thou rather: and hear all things that the Lord our God shall say to thee, and thou shalt speak to us, and we will hear and will do them. 28 And when the Lord had heard this, he said to me: I have heard the voice of the words of this people, which they spoke to thee: they have spoken all things well. 29 Who shall give them to have such a mind, to fear me, and to keep all my commandments at all times, that it may be well with them and with their children for ever? 30 Go and say to them: Return into your tents.

31 But stand thou here with me, and I will speak to thee all my commandments, and ceremonies and judgments: which thou shalt teach them, that they may do them in the land, which I will give them for a possession. 32 Keep therefore and do the things which the Lord God hath commanded you: you shall not go aside neither to the right hand, nor to the left. 33 But you shall walk in the way that the Lord your God hath commanded, that you may live, and it may be well with you, and your days may be long in the land of your possession.


Chapter 6

An exhortation to the love of God, and obedience to his law.

1 These are the precepts, and ceremonies, and judgments, which the Lord your God commanded that I should teach you, and that you should do them in the land into which you pass over to possess it: 2 That thou mayst fear the Lord thy God, and keep all his commandments and precepts, which I command thee, and thy sons, and thy grandsons, all the days of thy life, that thy days may be prolonged. 3 Hear, O Israel, and observe to do the things which the Lord hath commanded thee, that it may be well with thee, and thou mayst be greatly multiplied, as the Lord the God of thy fathers hath promised thee a land flowing with milk and honey. 4 Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord. 5 Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart, and with thy whole soul, and with thy whole strength.

6 And these words which I command thee this day, shall be in thy heart: 7 And thou shalt tell them to thy children, and thou shalt meditate upon them sitting in thy house, and walking on thy journey, sleeping and rising. 8 And thou shalt bind them as a sign on thy hand, and they shall be and shall move between thy eyes. 9 And thou shalt write them in the entry, and on the doors of thy house. 10 And when the Lord thy God shall have brought thee into the land, for which he swore to thy fathers Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: and shall have given thee great and goodly cities, which thou didst not build,

11 Houses full of riches, which thou didst not set up, cisterns which thou didst not dig, vineyards and oliveyards, which thou didst not plant, 12 And thou shalt have eaten and be full: 13 Take heed diligently lest thou forget the Lord, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, and shalt serve him only, and thou shalt swear by his name. 14 You shall not go after the strange gods of all the nations, that are round about you: 15 Because the Lord thy God is a jealous God in the midst of thee: lest at any time the wrath of the Lord thy God be kindled against thee, and take thee away from the face of the earth.

16 Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God, as thou temptedst him in the place of temptation. 17 Keep the precepts of the Lord thy God, and the testimonies and ceremonies which he hath commanded thee. 18 And do that which is pleasing and good in the sight of the Lord, that it may be well with thee: and going in thou mayst possess the goodly land, concerning which the Lord swore to thy fathers, 19 That he would destroy all thy enemies before thee, as he hath spoken. 20 And when thy son shall ask thee tomorrow, saying: What mean these testimonies, and ceremonies and judgments, which the Lord our God hath commanded us?

21 Thou shalt say to him: We were bondmen of Pharao in Egypt, and the Lord brought us out of Egypt with a strong hand. 22 And he wrought signs and wonders great and very grievous in Egypt against Pharao, and all his house, in our sight, 23 And he brought us out from thence, that he might bring us in and give us the land, concerning which he swore to our fathers. 24 And the Lord commanded that we should do all these ordinances, and should fear the Lord our God, that it might be well with us all the days of our life, as it is at this day. 25 And he will be merciful to us, if we keep and do all his precepts before the Lord our God, as he hath commanded us.


Chapter 7

No league nor fellowship to be made with the Chanaanites: God promiseth his people his blessing and assistance, if they keep his commandments.

1 When the Lord thy God shall have brought thee into the land, which thou art going in to possess, and shall have destroyed many nations before thee, the Hethite, and the Gergezite, and the Amorrhite, and the Chanaanite, and the Pherezite, and the Hevite, and the Jebusite, seven nations much more numerous than thou art, and stronger than thou: 2 And the Lord thy God shall have delivered them to thee, thou shalt utterly destroy them. Thou shalt make no league with them, nor shew mercy to them: 3 Neither shalt thou make marriages with them. Thou shalt not give thy daughter to his son, nor take his daughter for thy son: 4 For she will turn away thy son from following me, that he may rather serve strange gods, and the wrath of the Lord will be kindled, and will quickly destroy thee. 5 But thus rather shall you deal with them: Destroy their altars, and break their statues, and cut down their groves, and burn their graven things.

6 Because thou art a holy people to the Lord thy God. The Lord thy God hath chosen thee, to be his peculiar people of all peoples that are upon the earth. 7 Not because you surpass all nations in number, is the Lord joined unto you, and hath chosen you, for you are the fewest of any people: 8 But because the Lord hath loved you, and hath kept his oath, which he swore to your fathers: and hath brought you out with a strong hand, and redeemed you from the house of bondage, out of the hand of Pharao the king of Egypt. 9 And thou shalt know that the Lord thy God, he is a strong and faithful God, keeping his covenant and mercy to them that love him, and to them that keep his commandments, unto a thousand generations: 10 And repaying forthwith them that hate him, so as to destroy them, without further delay immediately rendering to them what they deserve.

11 Keep therefore the precepts and ceremonies and judgments, which I command thee this day to do. 12 If after thou hast heard these judgments, thou keep and do them, the Lord thy God will also keep his covenant to thee, and the mercy which he swore to thy fathers: 13 And he will love thee and multiply thee, and will bless the fruit of thy womb, and the fruit of thy land, thy corn, and thy vintage, thy oil, and thy herds, and the flocks of thy sheep upon the land, for which he swore to thy fathers that he would give it thee. 14 Blessed shalt thou be among all people. No one shall be barren among you of either sex, neither of men nor cattle. 15 The Lord will take away from thee all sickness: and the grievous infirmities of Egypt, which thou knowest, he will not bring upon thee, but upon thy enemies.

16 Thou shalt consume all the people, which the Lord thy God will deliver to thee. Thy eye shall not spare them, neither shalt thou serve their gods, lest they be thy ruin. 17 If thou say in thy heart: These nations are more than I, how shall I be able to destroy them? 18 Fear not, but remember what the Lord thy God did to Pharao and to all the Egyptians, 19 The exceeding great plagues, which thy eyes saw, and the signs and wonders, and the strong hand, and the stretched out arm, with which the Lord thy God brought thee out: so will he do to all the people, whom thou fearest. 20 Moreover the Lord thy God will send also hornets among them, until he destroy and consume all that have escaped thee, and could hide themselves.

21 Thou shalt not fear them, because the Lord thy God is in the midst of thee, a God mighty and terrible: 22 He will consume these nations in thy sight by little and little and by degrees. Thou wilt not be able to destroy them altogether: lest perhaps the beasts of the earth should increase upon thee. 23 But the Lord thy God shall deliver them in thy sight: and shall slay them until they be utterly destroyed. 24 And he shall deliver their kings into thy hands, and thou shalt destroy their names from under Heaven: no man shall be able to resist thee, until thou destroy them. 25 Their graven things thou shalt burn with fire: thou shalt not covet the silver and gold of which they are made, neither shalt thou take to thee any thing thereof, lest thou offend, because it is an abomination to the Lord thy God.

25 "Graven things"... Idols, so called by contempt.

26 Neither shalt thou bring any thing of the idol into thy house, lest thou become an anathema, like it. Thou shalt detest it as dung, and shalt utterly abhor it as uncleanness and filth, because it is an anathema.


Chapter 8

The people is put in mind of God's dealings with them, to the end that they may love him and serve him.

1 All the commandments, that I command thee this day, take great care to observe: that you may live, and be multiplied, and going in may possess the land, for which the Lord swore to your fathers. 2 And thou shalt remember all the way through which the Lord thy God hath brought thee for forty years through the desert, to afflict thee and to prove thee, and that the things that were in thy heart might be made known, whether thou wouldst keep his commandments or no. 3 He afflicted thee with want, and gave thee manna for thy food, which neither thou nor thy fathers knew: to shew that not in bread alone doth man live, but in every word that proceedeth from the mouth of God. 4 Thy raiment, with which thou wast covered, hath not decayed for age, and thy foot is not worn, lo this is the fortieth year, 5 That thou mayst consider in thy heart, that as a man traineth up his son, so the Lord thy God hath trained thee up.

3 "Not in bread alone"... That is, that God is able to make food of what he pleases for the support of man.

6 That thou shouldst keep the commandments of the Lord thy God, and walk in his ways, and fear him. 7 For the Lord thy God will bring thee into a good land, of brooks and of waters, and of fountains: in the plains of which and the hills deep rivers break out: 8 A land of wheat, and barley, and vineyards, wherein fig trees and pomegranates, and oliveyards grow: a land of oil and honey. 9 Where without any want thou shalt eat thy bread, and enjoy abundance of all things: where the stones are iron, and out of its hills are dug mines of brass: 10 That when thou hast eaten, and art full, thou mayst bless the Lord thy God for the excellent land which he hath given thee.

11 Take heed, and beware lest at any time thou forget the Lord thy God, and neglect his commandments and judgments and ceremonies, which I command thee this day: 12 Lest after thou hast eaten and art filled, hast built goodly houses, and dwelt in them, 13 And shalt have herds of oxen and flocks of sheep, and plenty of gold and of silver, and of all things, 14 Thy heart be lifted up, and thou remember not the Lord thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage: 15 And was thy leader in the great and terrible wilderness, wherein there was the serpent burning with his breath, and the scorpion and the dipsas, and no waters at all: who brought forth streams out of the hardest rock,

15 "The Dipsas"... A serpent whose bite causeth a violent thirst; from whence it has its name, for in Greek dipsa signifies thirst.

16 And fed thee in the wilderness with manna which thy fathers knew not. And after he had afflicted and proved thee, at the last he had mercy on thee, 17 Lest thou shouldst say in thy heart: My own might, and the strength of my own hand have achieved all these things for me. 18 But remember the Lord thy God, that he hath given thee strength, that he might fulfill his covenant, concerning which he swore to thy fathers, as this present day sheweth. 19 But if thou forget the Lord thy God, and follow strange gods, and serve and adore them: behold now I foretell thee that thou shalt utterly perish. 20 As the nations, which the Lord destroyed at thy entrance, so shall you also perish, if you be disobedient to the voice of the Lord your God.


Chapter 9

Lest they should impute their victories to their own merits, they are put in mind of their manifold rebellions and other sins, for which they should have been destroyed, but God spared them for his promise made to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

1 Hear, O Israel: Thou shalt go over the Jordan this day; to possess nations very great, and stronger than thyself, cities great, and walled up to the sky, 2 A People great and tall, the sons of the Enacims, whom thou hast seen, and heard of, against whom no man is able to stand. 3 Thou shalt know therefore this day that the Lord thy God himself will pass over before thee, a devouring and consuming fire, to destroy and extirpate and bring them to nothing before thy face quickly, as he hath spoken to thee. 4 Say not in thy heart, when the Lord thy God shall have destroyed them in thy sight: For my justice hath the Lord brought me in to possess this land, whereas these nations are destroyed for their wickedness. 5 For it is not for thy justices, and the uprightness of thy heart that thou shalt go in to possess their lands: but because they have done wickedly, they are destroyed at thy coming in: and that the Lord might accomplish his word, which he promised by oath to thy fathers Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

6 Know therefore that the Lord thy God giveth thee not this excellent land in possession for thy justices, for thou art a very stiffnecked people. 7 Remember, and forget not how then provokedst the Lord thy God to wrath in the wilderness. From the day that thou camest out of Egypt unto this place, thou hast always strove against the Lord. 8 For in Horeb also thou didst provoke him, and he was angry, and would have destroyed thee, 9 When I went up into the mount to receive the tables of stone, the tables of the covenant which the Lord made with you: and I continued in the mount forty days and nights, neither eating bread, nor drinking water. 10 And the Lord gave me two tables of stone written with the finger of God, and containing all the words that he spoke to you in the mount from the midst of the fire, when the people were assembled together.

11 And when forty days were passed, and as many nights, the Lord gave me the two tables of stone, the tables of the covenant, 12 And said to me: Arise, and go down from hence quickly: for thy people, which thou hast brought out of Egypt, have quickly forsaken the way that thou hast shewn them, and have made to themselves a molten idol. 13 And again the Lord said to me: I see that this people is stiffnecked: 14 Let me alone that I may destroy them, and abolish their name from under heaven, and set thee over a nation, that is greater and stronger than this. 15 And when I came down from the burning mount, and held the two tables of the covenant with both hands,

16 And saw that you had sinned against the Lord your God, and had made to yourselves a molten calf, and had quickly forsaken his way, which he had shewn you: 17 I cast the tables out of my hands, and broke them in your sight. 18 And I fell down before the Lord as before, forty days and nights neither eating bread, nor drinking water, for all your sins, which you had committed against the Lord, and had provoked him to wrath: 19 For I feared his indignation and anger, wherewith being moved against you, he would have destroyed you. And the Lord heard me this time also. 20 And he was exceeding angry against Aaron also, and would have destroyed him, and I prayed in like manner for him.

21 And your sin that you had committed, that is, the calf, I took, and burned it with fire, and breaking it into pieces, until it was as small as dust, I threw it into the torrent, which cometh down from the mountain. 22 At the burning also, and at the place of temptation, and at the graves of lust you provoked the Lord: 23 And when he sent you from Cadesbarne, saying: Go up, and possess the land that I have given you, and you slighted the commandment of the Lord your God, and did not believe him, neither would you hearken to his voice: 24 But were always rebellious from the day that I began to know you. 25 And I lay prostrate before the Lord forty days and nights, in which I humbly besought him, that he would not destroy you as he had threatened:

26 And praying, I said: O Lord God, destroy not thy people, and thy inheritance, which thou hast redeemed in thy greatness, whom thou hast brought out of Egypt with a strong hand. 27 Remember thy servants Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: look not on the stubbornness of this people, nor on their wickedness and sin: 28 Lest perhaps the inhabitants of the land, out of which thou hast brought us, say: The Lord could not bring them into the land that he promised them, and he hated them: therefore he brought them out, that he might kill them in the wilderness, 29 Who are thy people and thy inheritance, whom thou hast brought out by thy great strength, and in thy stretched out arm.


Chapter 10

God giveth the second tables of the law: a further exhortation to fear and serve the Lord.

1 At that time the Lord said to me: Hew thee two tables of stone like the former, and come up to me into the mount: and thou shalt make an ark of wood, 2 And I will write on the tables the words that were in them, which thou brokest before, and thou shalt put them in the ark. 3 And I made an ark of setim wood And when I had hewn two tables of stone like the former, I went up into the mount, having them in my hands. 4 And he wrote in the tables, according as he had written before, the ten words, which the Lord spoke to you in the mount from the midst of the fire, when the people were assembled: and he gave them to me. 5 And returning from the mount, I came down, and put the tables into the ark, that I had made, and they are there till this present, as the Lord commanded me.

6 And the children of Israel removed their camp from Beroth of the children of Jacan into Mosera, where Aaron died and was buried, and Eleazar his son succeeded him in the priestly office. 7 From thence they came to Gadgad, from which place they departed, and camped in Jetebatha, in a land of waters and torrents. 8 At that time he separated the tribe of Levi, to carry the ark of the covenant of the Lord, and to stand before him in the ministry, and to bless in his name until this present day. 9 Wherefore Levi hath no part nor possession with his brethren: because the Lord himself is his possession, as the Lord thy God promised him. 10 And I stood in the mount, as before, forty days and nights: and the Lord heard me this time also, and would not destroy thee.

6 "Mosera"... By mount Hor, for there Aaron died, Num. 20. This and the following verses seem to be inserted by way of parenthesis.

11 And he said to me: Go, and walk before the people, that they may enter, and possess the land, which I swore to their fathers that I would give them. 12 And now, Israel, what doth the Lord thy God require of thee, but that thou fear the Lord thy God, and walk in his ways, and love him, and serve the Lord thy God, with all thy heart, and with all thy soul: 13 And keep the commandments of the Lord, and his ceremonies, which I command thee this day, that it may be well with thee? 14 Behold heaven is the Lord's thy God, and the heaven of heaven, the earth and all things that are therein. 15 And yet the Lord hath been closely joined to thy fathers, and loved them and chose their seed after them, that is to say, you, out of all nations, as this day it is proved.

16 Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your heart, and stiffen your neck no more. 17 Because the Lord your God he is the God of gods, and the Lord of lords, a great God and mighty and terrible, who accepteth no person nor taketh bribes. 18 He doth judgment to the fatherless and the widow, loveth the stranger, and giveth him food and raiment. 19 And do you therefore love strangers, because you also were strangers in the land of Egypt. 20 Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, and serve him only: to him thou shalt adhere, and shalt swear by his name.

21 He is thy praise, and thy God, that hath done for thee these great and terrible things, which thy eyes have seen. 22 In seventy souls thy fathers went down into Egypt: and behold now the Lord thy God hath multiplied thee as the stars of heaven.


Chapter 11

The love and service of God are still inculcated, with a blessing to them that serve him, and threats of punishment if they forsake his law.

1 Therefore love the Lord thy God and observe his precepts and ceremonies, his judgments and commandments at all times. 2 Know this day the things that your children know not, who saw not the chastisements of the Lord your God. his great doings and strong hand, and stretched out arm, 3 The signs and works which he did in the midst of Egypt to king Pharao, and to all his land, 4 And to all the host of the Egyptians, and to their horses and chariots: how the waters of the Red Sea covered them, when they pursued you, and how the Lord destroyed them until this present day: 5 And what he hath done to you in the wilderness, till you came to this place:

6 And to Dathan and Abiron the sons of Eliab, who was the son of Ruben: whom the earth, opening her mouth swallowed up with their households and tents, and all their substance, which they had in the midst of Israel. 7 Your eyes have seen all the greet works of the Lord, that he hath done, 8 That you may keep all his commandments, which I command you this day, and may go in, and possess the land, to which you are entering, 9 And may live in it a long time: which the Lord promised by oath to your fathers, and to their seed, a land which floweth with milk and honey. 10 For the land, which thou goest to possess, is not like the land of Egypt, from whence thou camest out, where, when the seed is sown, waters are brought in to water it after the manner of gardens.

11 But it is a land of hills and plains, expecting rain from heaven. 12 And the Lord thy God doth always visit it, and his eyes are on it from the beginning of the year unto the end thereof. 13 If then you obey my commandments, which I command you this day, that you love the Lord your God, and serve him with all your heart, and with all your soul: 14 He will give to your land the early rain and the latter rain, that you may gather in your corn, and your wine, and your oil, 15 And your hay out of the fields to feed your cattle, and that you may eat and be filled.

16 Beware lest perhaps your heart be deceived, and you depart from the Lord, and serve strange gods, and adore them: 17 And the Lord being angry shut up heaven, that the rain come not down, nor the earth yield her fruit, and you perish quickly from the excellent land, which the Lord will give you. 18 Lay up these my words in your hearts and minds, and hang them for a sign on your hands, and place them between your eyes. 19 Teach your children that they meditate on them, when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest on the way, and when thou liest down and risest up. 20 Thou shalt write them upon the posts and the doors of thy house:

21 That thy days may be multiplied, and the days of thy children in the land which the Lord swore to thy fathers, that he would give them as long as the heaven hangeth over the earth. 22 For if you keep the commandments which I command you, and do them, to love the Lord your God, and walk in all his ways, cleaving unto him, 23 The Lord will destroy all these nations before your face, and you shall possess them, which are greater and stronger than you. 24 Every place, that your foot shall tread upon, shall be yours. From the desert, and from Libanus, from the great river Euphrates unto the western sea shall be your borders. 25 None shall stand against you: the Lord your God shall lay the dread and fear of you upon all the land that you shall tread upon, as he hath spoken to you.

26 Behold I set forth in your sight this day a blessing and a curse: 27 A blessing, if you obey the commandments of the Lord your God, which I command you this day: 28 A curse, if you obey not the commandments of the Lord your. God, but revolt from the way which now I shew you, and walk after strange gods which you know not. 29 And when the Lord thy God shall have brought thee into the land, whither thou goest to dwell, thou shalt put the blessing upon mount Garizim, the curse upon mount Hebal: 30 Which are beyond the Jordan, behind the way that goeth to the setting of the sun, in the land of the Chanaanite who dwelleth in the plain country over against Galgala, which is near the valley that reacheth and entereth far.

29 "Put the blessing"... See Deut. 27. 12, etc. and Josue 8. 33, etc.

31 For you shall pass over the Jordan, to possess the land, which the Lord your God will give you, that you may have it and possess it. 32 See therefore that you fulfill the ceremonies and judgments, which I shall set this day before you.


Chapter 12

All idolatry must be extirpated: sacrifices, tithes, and firstfruits must be offered in one only place: all eating of blood is prohibited.

1 These are the precepts and judgments, that you must do in the land, which the Lord the God of thy fathers will give thee, to possess it all the days that thou shalt walk upon the earth. 2 Destroy all the places in which the nations, that you shall possess, worshipped their gods upon high mountains, and hills, and under every shady tree: 3 Overthrow their altars, and break down their statues, burn their groves with fire, and break their idols in pieces: destroy their names out of those places. 4 You shall not do so to the Lord your God: 5 But you shall come to the place, which the Lord your God shall choose out of all your tribes, to put his name there, and to dwell in it:

6 And you shall offer in that place your holocausts and victims, the tithes and firstfruits of your hands and your vows and gifts, the firstborn of your herds and your sheep. 7 And you shall eat there in the sight of the Lord your God: and you shall rejoice in all things, whereunto you shall put your hand, you and your houses wherein the Lord your God hath blessed you. 8 You shall not do there the things we do here this day, every man that which seemeth good to himself. 9 For until this present time you are not come to refit, and to the possession, which the Lord your God will give you. 10 You shall pass over the Jordan, and shall dwell in the land which the Lord your God will give you, that you may have rest from all enemies round about: and may dwell without any fear,

11 In the place, which the Lord your God shall choose, that his name may be therein. Thither shall you bring all the things that I command you, holocausts, and victims, and tithes, and the firstfruits of your hands: and whatsoever is the choicest in the gifts which you shall vow to the Lord. 12 There shall you feast before the Lord your God, you and your sons and your daughters, your menservants and maid-servants, and the Levite that dwelleth in your cities. For he hath no other part and possession among you. 13 Beware lest thou offer thy holocausts in every place that thou shalt see: 14 But in the place which the Lord shall choose in one of thy tribes shalt thou offer sacrifices. and shalt do all that I command thee. 15 But if thou desirest to eat, and the eating of flesh delight thee, kill, and eat according to the blessing of the Lord thy God, which he hath given thee, in thy cities: whether it be unclean, that is to say, having blemish or defect: or clean, that is to say, sound and without blemish, such as may be offered, as the roe, and the hart, shalt thou eat it:

16 Only the blood thou shalt not eat, but thou shalt pour it out upon the earth as water. 17 Thou mayst not eat in thy towns the tithes of thy corn, and thy wine, and thy oil, the firstborn of thy herds and thy cattle, nor any thing that thou vowest, and that thou wilt offer voluntarily, and the firstfruits of thy hands: 18 But thou shalt eat them before the Lord thy God in the place which the Lord thy God shall choose, thou and thy son and thy daughter, and thy manservant, and maidservant, and the Levite that dwelleth in thy cities: and thou shalt rejoice and be refreshed before the Lord thy God in all things, whereunto thou shalt put thy hand. 19 Take heed thou forsake not the Levite all the time that thou livest in the land. 20 When the Lord thy God shall have enlarged thy borders, as he hath spoken to thee, and thou wilt eat the flesh that thy soul desireth:

21 And if the place which the Lord thy God shall choose, that his name should be there, be far off, thou shalt kill of thy herds and of thy flocks, as I have commanded thee, and shalt eat in thy towns, as it pleaseth thee. 22 Even as the roe and the hart is eaten, so shalt thou eat them: both the clean and unclean shall eat of them alike. 23 Only beware of this, that thou eat not the blood, for the blood is for the soul: and therefore thou must not eat the soul with the flesh: 24 But thou shalt pour it upon the earth as water, 25 That it may be well with thee and thy children after thee, when thou shalt do that which is pleasing in the sight of the Lord.

26 But the things which thou hast sanctified and vowed to the Lord, thou shalt take, and shalt come to the place which the Lord shall choose: 27 And shalt offer thy oblations the flesh and the blood upon the altar of the Lord thy God: the blood of thy victims thou shalt pour on the altar: and the flesh thou thyself shalt eat. 28 Observe and hear all the things that I command thee, that it may be well with thee and thy children after thee for ever, when thou shalt do what is good and pleasing in the sight of the Lord thy God. 29 When the Lord thy God shall have destroyed before thy face the nations, which then shalt go in to possess, and when thou shalt possess them, and dwell in their land: 30 Beware lest thou imitate them, after they are destroyed at thy coming in, and lest thou seek after their ceremonies, saying: As these nations have worshipped their gods, so will I also worship.

31 Thou shalt not do in like manner to the Lord thy God. For they have done to their gods all the abominations which the Lord abhorreth, offering their sons and daughters, and burning them with fire. 32 What I command thee, that only do thou to the Lord: neither add any thing, nor diminish.

32 "That only do thou"... They are forbid here to follow the ceremonies of the heathens; or to make any alterations in the divine ordinances.


Chapter 13

False prophets must be slain, and idolatrous cities destroyed.

1 If there rise in the midst of thee a prophet or one that saith he hath dreamed a dream, and he foretell a sign and a wonder, 2 And that come to pass which he spoke, and he say to thee: Let us go and follow strange gods, which thou knowest not, and let us serve them: 3 Thou shalt not hear the words of that prophet or dreamer: for the Lord your God trieth you, that it may appear whether you love him with all your heart, and with all your soul, or not. 4 Follow the Lord your God, and fear him, and keep his commandments, and hear his voice: him you shall serve, and to him you shall cleave. 5 And that prophet or forger of dreams shall be slain: because he spoke to draw you away from the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, and redeemed you from the house of bondage: to make thee go out of the way, which the Lord thy God commanded thee: and thou shalt take away the evil out of the midst of thee.

6 If thy brother the son of thy mother, or thy son, or daughter, or thy wife that is in thy bosom, or thy friend, whom thou lovest as thy own soul, would persuade thee secretly, saying: Let us go, and serve strange gods, which thou knowest not, nor thy fathers, 7 Of all the nations round about, that are near or afar off, from one end of the earth to the other, 8 Consent not to him, hear him not, neither let thy eye spare him to pity and conceal him, 9 But thou shalt presently put him to death. It Let thy hand be first upon him, and afterwards the hands of all the people. 10 With stones shall he be stoned to death: because he would have withdrawn thee from the Lord thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage:

9 "Presently put him to death"... Not by killing him by private authority, but by informing the magistrate, and proceeding by order of justice.

11 That all Israel hearing may fear, and may do no more any thing like this. 12 If in one of thy cities, which the Lord thy God shall give thee to dwell in, thou hear some say: 13 Children of Belial are gone out of the midst of thee, and have withdrawn the inhabitants of their city, and have said: Let us go, and serve strange gods which you know not: 14 Inquire carefully and diligently, the truth of the thing by looking well into it, and if thou find that which is said to be certain, and that this abomination hath been really committed, 15 Thou shalt forthwith kill the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, and shalt destroy it and all things that are in it, even the cattle.

13 "Belial"... That is, without yoke. Hence the wicked, who refuse to be subject to the divine law, are called in scripture the children of Belial.

16 And all the household goods that are there, thou shalt gather together in the midst of the streets thereof, and shalt burn them with the city itself, so as to consume all for the Lord thy God, and that it be a heap for ever: it shall be built no more. 17 And there shall nothing of that anathema stick to thy hand: that the Lord may turn from the wrath of his fury, and may have mercy on thee, and multiply thee as he swore to thy fathers, 18 When thou shalt hear the voice of the Lord thy God, keeping all his precepts, which I command thee this day, that thou mayst do what is pleasing in the sight of the Lord thy God.


Chapter 14

In mourning for the dead they are not to follow the ways of the Gentiles: the distinction of clean and unclean meats: ordinances concerning tithes, and firstfruits.

1 Be ye children of the Lord your God: you shall not cut yourselves, no, make any baldness for the dead; 2 Because thou art a holy people to the Lord thy God: and he chose thee to be his peculiar people of all nations that are upon the earth. 3 Eat not the things that are unclean. 4 These are the beasts that you shall eat, the ox, and the sheep, and the goat, 5 The hart and the roe, the buffle, the chamois, the pygarg, the wild goat, the camelopardalus.

3 "Unclean"... See the annotations on Lev. 11.

6 Every beast that divideth the hoof in two parts, and cheweth the cud, you shall eat. 7 But of them that chew the cud, but divide not the hoof, you shall not eat, such as the camel, the hare, and the cherogril: because they chew the cud, but divide not the hoof, they shall be unclean to you. 8 The swine also, because it divideth the hoof, but cheweth not the cud, shall be unclean, their flesh you shall not eat, and their carcasses you shall not touch. 9 These shall you eat of all that abide in the waters: All that have fins and scales, you shall eat. 10 Such as are without fins and scales, you shall not eat, because they are unclean.

11 All birds that are clean you shall eat. 12 The unclean eat not: to wit, the eagle, and the grype, and the osprey, 13 The ringtail, and the vulture, and the kite according to their kind: 14 And all of the raven's kind: 15 And the ostrich, and the owl, and the larus, and the hawk according to its kind:

16 The heron, and the swan, and the stork, 17 And the cormorant, the porphyrion, and the night crow, 18 The bittern, and the charadrion, every one in their kind: the hoop also and the bat. 19 Every thing that creepeth, and hath little wings, shall be unclean, and shall not be eaten. 20 All that is clean, you shall eat.

21 But whatsoever is dead of itself, eat not thereof. Give it to the stranger, that is within thy gates, to eat, or sell it to him: because thou art the holy people of the Lord thy God. Thou shalt not boil a kid in the milk of his dam. 22 Every year thou shalt set aside the tithes of all thy fruits that the earth bringeth forth, 23 And thou shalt eat before the Lord thy God in the place which he shall choose, that his name may be called upon therein, the tithe of thy corn, and thy wine, and thy oil, and the firstborn of thy herds and thy sheep: that thou mayst learn to fear the Lord thy God at all times. 24 But when the way and the place which the Lord thy God shall choose, are far off, and he hath blessed thee, and thou canst not carry all these things thither, 25 Thou shalt sell them all, and turn them into money, and shalt carry it in thy hand, and shalt go to the place which the Lord shall choose:

26 And thou shalt buy with the same money whatsoever pleaseth thee, either of the herds or of sheep, wine also and strong drink, and all that thy soul desireth: and thou shalt eat before the Lord thy God, and shalt feast, thou and thy house: 27 And the Levite that is within thy gates, beware thou forsake him not, because he hath no other part in thy possession. 28 The third year thou shalt separate another tithe of all things that grow to thee at that time, and shalt lay it up within thy gates. 29 And the Levite that hath no other part nor possession with thee, and the stranger and the fatherless and the widow, that are within thy gates, shall come and shall eat and be filled: that the Lord thy God may bless thee in all the works of thy hands that thou shalt do.


Chapter 15

The law of the seventh year of remission. The firstlings of cattle are to be sanctified to the Lord.

1 In the seventh year thou shalt make a remission, 2 Which shall be celebrated in this order. He to whom any thing is owing from his friend or neighbour or brother, cannot demand it again, because it is the year of remission of the Lord, 3 Of the foreigner or stranger thou mayst exact it: of thy countryman and neighbour thou shalt not have power to demand it again. 4 And there shall be no poor nor beggar among you: that the Lord thy God may bless thee in the land which he will give thee in possession. 5 Yet so if thou hear the voice of the Lord thy God, and keep all things that he hath ordained, and which I command thee this day, he will bless thee, as he hath promised.

4 "There shall be no poor"... It is not to be understood as a promise, that there should be no poor in Israel, as appears from ver. 11, where we learn that God's people would never be at a loss to find objects for their charity: but it is an ordinance that all should do their best endeavours to prevent any of their brethren from suffering the hardships of poverty and want.

6 Thou shalt lend to many nations, and thou shalt borrow of no man. Thou shalt have dominion over very many nations, and no one shall have dominion over thee. 7 If one of thy brethren that dwelleth within the gates of thy city in the land which the Lord thy God will give thee, come to poverty: thou shalt not harden thy heart, nor close thy hand, 8 But shalt open it to the poor man, thou shalt lend him, that which thou perceivest he hath need of. 9 Beware lest perhaps a wicked thought steal in upon thee, and thou say in thy heart: The seventh year of remission draweth nigh; and thou turn away thy eyes from thy poor brother, denying to lend him that which he asketh: lest he cry against thee to the Lord, and it become a sin unto thee. 10 But thou shalt give to him: neither shalt thou do any thing craftily in relieving his necessities: that the Lord thy God may bless thee at all times, and in all things to which thou shalt put thy hand.

11 There will not be wanting poor in the land of thy habitation: therefore I command thee to open thy hand to thy needy and poor brother, that liveth in the land. 12 When thy brother a Hebrew man, or Hebrew woman is sold to thee, and hath served thee six years, in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free: 13 And when thou sendest him out free, thou shalt not let him go away empty: 14 But shalt give him for his way out of thy flocks, and out of thy barnfloor, and thy winepress, wherewith the Lord thy God shall bless thee. 15 Remember that thou also wast a bondservant in the land of Egypt, and the Lord thy God made thee free, and therefore I now command thee this.

16 But if he say: I will not depart: because he loveth thee, and thy house, and findeth that he is well with thee: 17 Thou shalt take an awl, and bore through his ear in the door of thy house, and he shall serve thee for ever: thou shalt do in like manner to thy womanservant also. 18 Turn not away thy eyes from them when thou makest them tree: because he hath served thee six years according to the wages of a hireling: that the Lord thy God may bless thee in all the works that thou dost. 19 Of the firstlings, that come of thy herds and thy sheep, thou shalt sanctify to the Lord thy God whatsoever is of the male sex. Thou shalt not work with the firstling of a bullock, and thou shalt not shear the firstlings of thy sheep. 20 In the sight of the Lord thy God shalt thou eat them every year, in the place that the Lord shall choose, thou and thy house.

21 But if it have a blemish, or be lame, or blind, or in any part disfigured or feeble, it shall not be sacrificed to the Lord thy God. 22 But thou shalt eat it within the gates of thy city: the clean and the unclean shall eat them alike, as the roe and as the hart. 23 Only thou shalt take heed not to eat their blood, but pour it out on the earth as water.


Chapter 16

The three principal solemnities to be observed: just judges to be appointed in every city: all occasions of idolatry to be avoided.

1 Observe the month of new corn, which is the first of the spring, that thou mayst celebrate the phase to the Lord thy God: because in this month the Lord thy God brought thee out of Egypt by night. 2 And thou shalt sacrifice the phase to the Lord thy God, of sheep, and of oxen, in the place which the Lord thy God shall choose, that his name may dwell there. 3 Thou shalt not eat with it leavened bread: seven days shalt thou eat without leaven, the bread of affliction, because thou camest out of Egypt in fear: that thou mayst remember the day of thy coming out of Egypt, all the days of thy life. 4 No leaven shall be seen in all thy coasts for seven days, neither shall any of the flesh of that which was sacrificed the first day in the evening remain until morning. 5 Thou mayst not immolate the phase in any one of thy cities, which the Lord thy God will give thee:

6 But in the place which the Lord thy God shall choose, that his name may dwell there: thou shalt immolate the phase in the evening, at the going down of the sun, at which time thou camest out of Egypt. 7 And thou shalt dress, and eat it in the place which the Lord thy God shall choose, and in the morning rising up thou shalt go into thy dwellings. 8 Six days shalt thou eat unleavened bread: and on the seventh day, because it is the assembly of the Lord thy God, thou shalt do no work. 9 Thou shalt number unto thee seven weeks from that day, wherein thou didst put the sickle to the corn. 10 And thou shalt celebrate the festival of weeks to the Lord thy God, a voluntary oblation of thy hand, which thou shalt offer according to the blessing of the Lord thy God.

11 And thou shalt feast before the Lord thy God, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, and thy manservant, and thy maidservant, and the Levite that is within thy gates, and the stranger and the fatherless, and the widow, who abide with you: in the place which the Lord thy God shall choose, that his name may dwell there: 12 And thou shalt remember that thou wast a servant in Egypt: and thou shalt keep and do the things that are commanded. 13 Thou shalt celebrate the solemnity also of tabernacles seven days, when thou hast gathered in thy fruit of the barnfloor and of the winepress. 14 And thou shalt make merry in thy festival time, thou, thy son, and thy daughter, thy manservant, and thy maidservant, the Levite also and the stranger, and the fatherless and the widow that are within thy gates. 15 Seven days shalt thou celebrate feasts to the Lord thy God in the place which the Lord shall choose: and the Lord thy God will bless thee in all thy fruits, and in every work of thy hands, and thou shalt be in joy.

16 Three times in a year shall all thy males appear before the Lord thy God in the place which he shall choose: in the feast of unleavened bread, in the feast of weeks, and in the feast of tabernacles. No one shall appear with his hands empty before the Lord: 17 But every one shall offer according to what he hath, according to the blessing of the Lord his God, which he shall give him. 18 Thou shalt appoint judges and magistrates in all thy gates, which the Lord thy God shall give thee, in all thy tribes: that they may judge the people with just judgment, 19 And not go aside to either part. Thou shalt not accept person nor gifts: for gifts blind the eyes of the wise, and change the words of the just. 20 Thou shalt follow justly after that which is just: that thou mayst live and possess the land, which the Lord thy God shall give thee.

21 Thou shalt plant no grove, nor any tree near the altar of the Lord thy God: 22 Neither shalt thou make nor set up to thyself a statue: which things the Lord thy God hateth.


Chapter 17

Victims must be without blemish. Idolaters are to be slain. Controversies are to be decided by the high priest and council, whose sentence must be obeyed under pain of death. The duty of a king, who is to receive the law of God at the priest's hands.

1 Thou shalt not sacrifice to the Lord thy God a sheep, or an ox, wherein there is blemish, or any fault: for that is an abomination to the Lord thy God. 2 When there shall be found among you within any of thy gates, which the Lord thy God shall give thee, man or woman that do evil in the sight of the Lord thy God, and transgress his covenant, 3 So as to go and serve strange gods, and adore them, the sun and the moon. and all the host of heaven, which I have not commanded: 4 And this is told thee, and hearing it thou hast inquired diligently, and found it to be true, and that the abomination is committed in Israel: 5 Thou shalt bring forth the man or the woman, who have committed that most wicked thing, to the gates of thy city, and they shall be stoned.

3 "The host of heaven"... That is, the stars.

6 By the mouth of two or three witnesses shall he die that is to be slain. Let no man be put to death, when only one beareth witness against him. 7 The hands of the witnesses shall be first upon him to kill him, and afterwards the hands of the rest of the people: that thou mayst take away the evil out of the midst of thee. 8 If thou perceive that there be among you a hard and doubtful matter in judgment between blood and blood, cause and cause, leprosy and leprosy: and thou see that the words of the judges within thy gates do vary: arise, and go up to the place, which the Lord thy God shall choose. 9 And thou shalt come to the priests of the Levitical race, and to the judge, that shall be at that time: and thou shalt ask of them, and they shall shew thee the truth of the judgment. 10 And thou shalt do whatsoever they shall say, that preside in the place, which the Lord shall choose, and what they shall teach thee,

8 "If thou perceive"... Here we see what authority God was pleased to give to the church guides of the Old Testament, in deciding, without appeal, all controversies relating to the law; promising that they should not err therein; and surely he has not done less for the church guides of the New Testament.

11 According to his law; and thou shalt follow their sentence: neither shalt thou decline to the right hand nor to the left hand. 12 But he that will be proud, and refuse to obey the commandment of the priest, who ministereth at that time to the Lord thy God, and the decree of the judge, that man shall die, and thou shalt take away the evil from Israel: 13 And all the people hearing it shall fear, that no one afterwards swell with pride. 14 When thou art come into the land, which the Lord thy God will give thee, and possessest it, and shalt say: I will set a king over me, as all nations have that are round about: 15 Thou shalt set him whom the Lord thy God shall choose out of the number of thy brethren. Thou mayst not make a man of another nation king, that is not thy brother.

16 And when he is made king, he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor lead back the people into Egypt, being lifted up with the number of his horsemen, especially since the Lord hath commanded you to return no more the same way. 17 He shall not have many wives, that may allure his mind, nor immense sums of silver and gold. 18 But after he is raised to the throne of his kingdom, he shall copy out to himself the Deuteronomy of this law in a volume, taking the copy of the priests of the Levitical tribe, 19 And he shall have it with him, and shall read it all the days of his life, that he may learn to fear the Lord his God, and keep his words and ceremonies, that are commanded in the law; 20 And that his heart be not lifted up with pride over his brethren, nor decline to the right or to the left, that he and his sons may reign a long time over Israel.


Chapter 18

The Lord is the inheritance of the priests and Levites. Heathenish abominations are to be avoided. The great PROPHET CHRIST is promised. False prophets must be slain.

1 The priests and Levites, and all that are of the same tribe, shall have no part nor inheritance with the rest of Israel, because they shall eat the sacrifices of the Lord, and his oblations, 2 And they shall receive nothing else. of the possession of their brethren: for the Lord himself is their inheritance, as he hath said to them. 3 This shall be the priest's due from the people, and from them that offer victims: whether they sacrifice an ox, or a sheep, they shall give to the priest the shoulder and the breast: 4 The firstfruits also of corn, of wine, and of oil, and a part of the wool from the shearing of their sheep. 5 For the Lord thy God hath chosen him of all thy tribes, to stand and to minister to the name of the Lord, him and his sons for ever.

6 If a Levite go out of any one of the cities throughout all Israel, in which he dwelleth, and have a longing mind to come to the place which the Lord shall choose, 7 He shall minister in the name of the Lord his God, as all his brethren the Levites do, that shall stand at that time before the Lord. 8 He shall receive the same portion of food that the rest do: besides that which is due to him in his own city, by succession from his fathers. 9 When thou art come into the land which the Lord thy God shall give thee, beware lest thou have a mind to imitate the abominations of those nations. 10 Neither let there be found among you any one that shall expiate his son or daughter, making them to pass through the fire: or that consulteth soothsayers, or observeth dreams and omens, neither let there be any wizard,

11 Nor charmer, nor any one that consulteth pythonic spirits, or fortune tellers, or that seeketh the truth from the dead. 12 For the Lord abhorreth all these things, and for these abominations he will destroy them at thy coming. 13 Thou shalt be perfect, and without spot before the Lord thy God. 14 These nations, whose land thou shalt possess, hearken to soothsayers and diviners: but thou art otherwise instructed by the Lord thy God. 15 The Lord thy God will raise up to thee a PROPHET of thy nation and of thy brethren like unto me: him thou shalt hear:

16 As thou desiredst of the Lord thy God in Horeb, when the assembly was gathered together, and saidst: Let me not hear any more the voice of the Lord my God, neither let me see any more this exceeding great fire, lest I die. 17 And the Lord said to me: They have spoken all things well. 18 I will raise them up a prophet out of the midst of their brethren like to thee: and I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I shall command him. 19 And he that will not hear his words, which he shall speak in my name, I will be the revenger. 20 But the prophet, who being corrupted with pride, shall speak in my name things that I did not command him to say, or in the name of strange gods, shall be slain.

21 And if in silent thought thou answer: How shall I know the word that the Lord hath not spoken? 22 Thou shalt have this sign: Whatsoever that same prophet foretelleth in the name of the Lord, and it cometh not to pass: that thing the Lord hath not spoken, but the prophet hath forged it by the pride of his mind: and therefore thou shalt not fear him.


Chapter 19

The cities of refuge. Wilful murder, and false witnesses must be punished.

1 When the Lord thy God hath destroyed the nations, whose land he will deliver to thee, and thou shalt possess it, and shalt dwell in the cities and houses thereof: 2 Thou shalt separate to thee three cities in the midst of the land, which the Lord will give thee in possession, 3 Paving diligently the way: and thou shalt divide the whole province of thy land equally into three parts: that he who is forced to flee for manslaughter, may have near at hand whither to escape. 4 This shall be the law of the slayer that fleeth, whose life is to be saved: He that killeth his neighbour ignorantly, and who is proved to have had no hatred against him yesterday and the day before: 5 But to have gone with him to the wood to hew wood, and in cutting down the tree the axe slipped out of his hand, and the iron slipping from the handle struck his friend, and killed him: he shall flee to one of the cities aforesaid, and live:

6 Lest perhaps the next kinsman of him whose blood was shed, pushed on by his grief should pursue, and apprehend him. if the way be too long, and take away the life of him who is not guilty of death, because he is proved to have had no hatred before against him that was slain. 7 Therefore I command thee, that thou separate three cities at equal distance one from another. 8 And when the Lord thy God shall have enlarged thy borders, as he swore to thy fathers, and shall give thee all the land that he promised them, 9 (Yet so, if thou keep his commandments, and do the things which I command thee this day, that thou love the Lord thy God, and walk in his ways at all times) thou shalt add to thee other three cities, and shalt double the number of the three cities aforesaid: 10 That innocent blood may not be shed in the midst of the land which the Lord thy God will give thee to possess, lest thou be guilty of blood.

11 But if any man hating his neighbour, lie in wait for his life, and rise and strike him, and he die, and he flee to one of the cities aforesaid, 12 The ancients of his city shall send, and take him out of the place of refuge, and shall deliver him into the hand of the kinsman of him whose blood was shed, and he shall die. 13 Thou shalt not pity him, and thou shalt take away the guilt of innocent blood out of Israel, that it may be well with thee. 14 Thou shalt not take nor remove thy neighbour's landmark, which thy predecessors have set in thy possession. which the Lord thy God will give thee in the land that thou shalt receive to possess. 15 One witness shall not rise up against any man, whatsoever the sin or wickedness be: but in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word shall stand.

16 If a lying witness stand against a man, accusing him of transgression, 17 Both of them, between whom the controversy is, shall stand before the Lord in the sight of the priests and the judges that shall be in those days. 18 And when after most diligent inquisition, they shall find that the false witness hath told a lie against his brother: 19 They shall render to him as he meant to do to his brother, and thou shalt take away the evil out of the midst of thee: 20 That others hearing may fear, and may not dare to do such things.

21 Thou shalt not pity him, but shalt require life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot.


Chapter 20

Laws relating to war.

1 If thou go out to war against thy enemies, and see horsemen and chariots, and the numbers of the enemy's army greater than thine, thou shalt not fear them: because the Lord thy God is with thee, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt. 2 And when the battle is now at hand, the priest shall stand before the army, and shall speak to the people in this manner: 3 Hear, O Israel, you join battle this day against your enemies, let not your heart be dismayed, be not afraid, do not give back, fear ye them not: 4 Because the Lord your God is in the midst of you, and will fight for you against your enemies, to deliver you from danger. 5 And the captains shall proclaim through every band in the hearing of the army: What man is there, that hath built a new house, and hath not dedicated it? let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man dedicate it.

6 What man is there, that hath planted a vineyard, and hath not as yet made it to be common, whereof all men may eat? let him go, and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man execute his office. 7 What man is there, that hath espoused a wife, and not taken her? let him go, and return to his house, lest he die in the war, and another man take her. 8 After these things are declared they shall add the rest, and shall speak to the people: What man is there that is fearful, and faint hearted? let him go, and return to his house, lest he make the hearts of his brethren to fear, as he himself is possessed with fear. 9 And when the captains of the army shall hold their peace, and have made an end of speaking, every man shall prepare their bands to fight. 10 If at any time thou come to fight against a city, thou shalt first offer it peace.

11 If they receive it, and open the gates to thee, all the people that are therein, shall be saved, and shall serve thee paying tribute. 12 But if they will not make peace, and shall begin war against thee, thou shalt besiege it. 13 And when the Lord thy God shall deliver it into thy bands, thou shalt slay all that are therein of the male sex, with the edge of the sword, 14 Excepting women and children, cattle and other things, that are in the city. And thou shalt divide all the prey to the army, and thou shalt eat the spoils of thy enemies, which the Lord thy God shall give thee. 15 So shalt thou do to all cities that are at a great distance from thee, and are not of these cities which thou shalt receive in possession.

16 But of those cities that shall be given thee, thou shalt suffer none at all to live: 17 But shalt kill them with the edge of the sword, to wit, the Hethite, and the Amorrhite, and the Chanaanite, the Pherezite, and the Hevite, and the Jebusite, as the Lord thy God hath commanded thee: 18 Lest they teach you to do all the abominations which they have done to their gods: and you should sin against the Lord your God. 19 When thou hast besieged a city a long time, and hath compassed it with bulwarks to take it, thou shalt not cut down the trees that may be eaten of, neither shalt thou spoil the country round about with axes: for it is a tree, and not a man, neither can it increase the number of them that fight against thee. 20 But if there be any trees that are not fruitful, but wild, and fit for other uses, cut them down, and make engines, until thou take the city, which fighteth against thee.


Chapter 21

The expiation of a secret murder. The marrying a captive. The eldest son must not be deprived of his birthright for hatred of his mother. A stubborn son is to be stoned to death. When one is hanged on a gibbet, he must be taken down the same day and buried.

1 Then there shall be found in the land, which the Lord thy God will give thee, the corpse of a man slain, and it is not known who is guilty of the murder, 2 Thy ancients and judges shall go out, and shall measure from the place where the body lieth the distance of every city round about: 3 And the ancients of that city which they shall perceive to be nearer than the rest, shall take a heifer of the herd, that hath not drawn in the yoke, nor ploughed the ground, 4 And they shall bring her into a rough and stony valley, that never was ploughed, nor sown: and there they shall strike off the head of the heifer: 5 And the priests the sons of Levi shall come, whom the Lord thy God hath chosen to minister to him, and to bless in his name, and that by their word every matter should be decided, and whatsoever is clean or unclean should be judged.

6 And the ancients of that city shall come to the person slain, and shall wash their hands over the heifer that was killed in the valley, 7 And shall say: Our hands did not shed this blood, nor did our eyes see it. 8 Be merciful to thy people Israel, whom thou hast redeemed, O Lord, and lay not innocent blood to their charge, in the midst of thy people Israel. And the guilt of blood shall be taken from them: 9 And thou shalt be free from the innocent's blood, that was shed, when thou shalt have done what the Lord hath commanded thee. 10 If thou go out to fight against thy enemies, and the Lord thy God deliver them into thy hand, and thou lead them away captives,

11 And seest in the number of the captives a beautiful woman, and lovest her, and wilt have her to wife, 12 Thou shalt bring her into thy house: and she shall shave her hair, and pare her nails, 13 And shall put off the raiment, wherein she was taken: and shall remain in thy house, and mourn for her father and mother one month: and after that thou shalt go in unto her, and shalt sleep with her, and she shall be thy wife. 14 Rut if afterwards she please thee not, thou shalt let her go free, but thou mayst not sell her for money nor oppress her by might because thou hast humbled her. 15 If a man have two wives, one beloved, and the other hated, and they have had children by him, and the son of the hated be the firstborn,

16 And he meaneth to divide his substance among his sons: he may not make the son of the beloved the firstborn, and prefer him before the son of the hated. 17 But he shall acknowledge the son of the hated for the firstborn, and shall give him a double portion of all he hath: for this is the first of his children, and to him are due the first birthrights. 18 If a man have a stubborn and unruly son, who will not hear the commandments of his father or mother, and being corrected, slighteth obedience: 19 They shall take him and bring him to the ancients of his city, and to the gate of judgment, 20 And shall say to them: This our son is rebellious and stubborn, he slighteth hearing our admonitions, he giveth himself to revelling, and to debauchery and banquetings:

21 The people of the city shall stone him: and he shall die, that you may take away the evil out of the midst of you, and all Israel hearing it may be afraid. 22 When a man hath committed a crime for which he is to be punished with death, and being condemned to die is hanged on a gibbet: 23 His body shall not remain upon the tree, but shall be buried the same day: for he is accursed of God that hangeth on a tree: and thou shalt not defile thy land, which the Lord thy God shall give thee in possession.


Chapter 22

Humanity towards neighbours. Neither sex may use the apparel of the other. Cruelty to be avoided even to birds. Battlements about the roof of a house. Things of divers kinds not to be mixed. The punishment of him that slandereth his wife, as also of adultery and rape.

1 Thou shalt not pass by if thou seest thy brother's ox, or his sheep go astray: but thou shalt bring them back to thy brother. 2 And if thy brother be not nigh, or thou know him not: thou shalt bring them to thy house, and they shall be with thee until thy brother seek them, and receive them. 3 Thou shalt do in like manner with his ass, and with his raiment, and with every thing that is thy brother's, which is lost: if thou find it, neglect it not as pertaining to another. 4 If thou see thy brother's ass or his ox to be fallen down in the way, thou shalt not slight it, but shalt lift it up with him. 5 A woman shall not be clothed with man's apparel, neither shall a man use woman's apparel: for he that doeth these things is abominable before God.

6 If thou find as thou walkest by the way, a bird's nest in a tree, or on the ground, and the dam sitting upon the young or upon the eggs: thou shalt not take her with her young: 7 But shalt let her go, keeping the young which thou hast caught: that it may be well with thee, and thou mayst live a long time. 8 When thou buildest a new house, thou shalt make a battlement to the roof round about: lest blood be shed in thy house, and thou be guilty, if any one slip, and fall down headlong. 9 Thou shalt not sow thy vineyard with divers seeds: lest both the seed which thou hast sown, and the fruit of the vineyard, be sanctified together. 10 Thou shalt not plough with an ox and an ass together.

6 "Thou shalt not take"... This was to shew them to exercise a certain mercy even to irrational creatures; and by that means to train them up to a horror of cruelty; and to the exercise of humanity and mutual charity one to another.

8 "Battlement"... This precaution was necessary, because all their houses had flat tops, and it was usual to walk and to converse together upon them.

11 Thou shalt not wear a garment that is woven of woollen and linen together. 12 Thou shalt make strings in the hem at the four corners of thy cloak, wherewith thou shalt be covered. 13 If a man marry a wife, and afterwards hate her, 14 And seek occasions to put her away, laying to her charge a very ill name, and say: I took this woman to wife, and going in to her, I found her not a virgin: 15 Her father and mother shall take her, and shall bring with them the tokens of her virginity to the ancients of the city that are in the gate:

16 And the father shall say: I gave my daughter unto this man to wife: and because he hateth her, 17 He layeth to her charge a very ill name, so as to say: I found not thy daughter a virgin: and behold these are the tokens of my daughter's virginity. And they shall spread the cloth before the ancients of the city: 18 And the ancients of that city shall take that man, and beat him, 19 Condemning him besides in a hundred sides of silver, which he shall give to the damsel's father, because he hath defamed by a very ill name a virgin of Israel: and he shall have her to wife, and may not put her away all the days of his life. 20 But if what he charged her with be true, and virginity be not found in the damsel:

21 They shall cast her out of the doors of her father's house, and the men of the city shall stone her to death, and she shall die: because she hath done a wicked thing in Israel, to play the whore in her father's house: and thou shalt take away the evil out of the midst of thee. 22 If a man lie with another man's wife, they shall both die, that is to say, the adulterer and the adulteress: and thou shalt take away the evil out of Israel. 23 If a man have espoused a damsel that is a virgin, and some one find her in the city, and lie with her, 24 Thou shalt bring them both out to the gate of that city, and they shall be stoned: the damsel, because she cried not out, being in the city: the man, because he hath humbled his neighbour's wife. And thou shalt take away the evil from the midst of thee. 25 But if a man find a damsel that is betrothed, in the field, and taking hold of her, lie with her, he alone shall die:

26 The damsel shall suffer nothing, neither is she guilty of death: for as a robber riseth against his brother, and taketh away his life, so also did the damsel suffer: 27 She was alone in the field: she cried, and there was no man to help her. 28 If a man find a damsel that is a virgin, who is not espoused, and taking her, lie with her, and the matter come to judgment: 29 He that lay with her shall give to the father of the maid fifty sides of silver, and shall have her to wife, because he hath humbled her: he may not put her away all the days of his life. 30 No man shall take his father's wife, nor remove his covering.


Chapter 23

Who may and who may not enter into the church: uncleanness to be avoided: other precepts concerning fugitives, fornication, usury, vows, and eating other men's grapes and corn.

1 An eunuch, whose testicles are broken or cut away, or yard cut off, shall not enter into the church of the Lord. 2 A mamzer, that is to say, one born of a prostitute, shall not enter into the church of the Lord, until the tenth generation. 3 The Ammonite and the Moabite, even after the tenth generation shall not enter into the church of the Lord for ever: 4 Because they would not meet you with bread and water in the way, when you came out of Egypt: hand because they hired against thee Balaam, the son of Beer, from Mesopotamia in Syria, to curse thee. 5 And the Lord thy God would not hear Balaam, and he turned his cursing into thy blessing, because he loved thee.

1 "Eunuch"... By these are meant, in the spiritual sense, such as are barren in good works. Ibid.

1 "Into the church"... That is, into the assembly or congregation of Israel, so as to have the privilege of an Israelite, or to be capable of any place or office among the people of God.

6 Thou shalt not make peace with them, neither shalt thou seek their prosperity all the days of thy life for ever. 7 Thou shalt not abhor the Edomite, because he is thy brother: nor the Egyptian, because thou wast a stranger in his land. 8 They that are born of them, in the third generation shall enter into the church of the Lord. 9 When thou goest out to war against thy enemies, thou shalt keep thyself from every evil thing. 10 If there be among you any man, that is defiled in a dream by night, he shall go forth out of the camp.

11 And shall not return, before he be washed with water in the evening: and after sunset he shall return into the camp. 12 Thou shalt have a place without the camp, to which thou mayst go for the necessities of nature, 13 Carrying a paddle at thy girdle. And when thou sittest down, thou shalt dig round about, and with the earth that is dug up thou shalt cover 14 That which thou art eased of: (for the Lord thy God walketh in the midst of thy camp, to deliver thee, and to give up thy enemies to thee:) and let thy camp be holy, and let no uncleanness appear therein, lest he go away from thee. 15 Thou shalt not deliver to his master the servant that is fled to thee.

14 "No uncleanness"... This caution against suffering any filth in the camp, was to teach them to fly the filth of sin, which driveth God away from the soul.

16 He shall dwell with thee ill the place that shall please him, and shall rest, in one of thy cities: give him no trouble. 17 There shall be no whore among the daughters of Israel, nor whoremonger among the sons of Israel. 18 Thou shalt not offer the hire of a strumpet, nor the price of a dog, in the house of the Lord thy God, whatsoever it be that thou hast vowed: because both these are an abomination to the Lord thy God. 19 Thou shalt not lend to thy brother money to usury, nor corn, nor any other thing: 20 But to the stranger. To thy brother thou shalt lend that which he wanteth, without usury: that the Lord thy God may bless thee in all thy works in the land, which thou shalt go in to possess.

20 "To the stranger"... This was a dispensation granted by God to his people, who being the Lord of all things, can give a right and title to one upon the goods of another. Otherwise the scripture everywhere condemns usury, as contrary to the law of God, and a crying sin. See Ex. 22. 25; Lev. 25. 36, 37; 2 Esd. 5. 7; Ps. 14. 5; Ezech. 18. 8, 13, etc.

21 When thou hast made a vow to the Lord thy God, thou shalt not delay to pay it: because the Lord thy God will require it. And if thou delay, it shall be imputed to thee for a sin. 22 If thou wilt not promise, thou shalt be without sin. 23 But that which is once gone out of thy lips, thou shalt observe, and shalt do as thou hast promised to the Lord thy God, and hast spoken with thy own will and with thy own mouth. 24 Going into thy neighbour's vineyard, thou mayst eat as many grapes as thou pleasest: but must carry none out with thee: 25 If thou go into thy friend's corn, thou mayst break the ears, and rub them in thy hand: but not reap them with a sickle.


Chapter 24

Divorce permitted to avoid greater evil: the newly married must not go to war: of men stealers, of leprosy, of pledges, of labourers' hire, of justice, and of charity to the poor.

1 If a man take a wife, and have her, and she find not favour in his eyes, for some uncleanness: he shall write a bill of divorce, and shall give it in her hand, and send her out of his house. 2 And when she is departed, and marrieth another husband, 3 And he also hateth her, and hath given her a bill of divorce, and hath sent her out of his house or is dead: 4 The former husband cannot take her again to wife: because she is defiled, and is become abominable before the Lord: lest thou cause thy land to sin, which the Lord thy God shall give thee to possess. 5 When a man hath lately taken a wife, he shall not go out to war, neither shall any public business be enjoined him, but he shall be free at home without fault, that for one year he may rejoice with his wife.

6 Thou shalt not take the nether, nor the upper millstone to pledge: for he hath pledged his life to thee. 7 If any man be found soliciting his brother of the children of Israel, and selling him shall take a price, he shall be put to death, and thou shalt take away the evil from the midst of thee. 8 Observe diligently that thou incur not the stroke of the leprosy, but thou shalt do whatsoever the priests of the Levitical race shall teach thee, according to what I have commanded them, and fulfill thou it carefully. 9 Remember what the Lord your God did to Mary, in the way when you came out of Egypt. 10 When thou shalt demand of thy neighbour any thing that he oweth thee, thou shalt not go into his house to take away a pledge:

11 But then shalt stand without, and he shall bring out to thee what he hath. 12 But if he be poor, the pledge shall not lodge with thee that night, 13 But thou shalt restore it to him presently before the going down of the sun: that he may sleep in his own raiment and bless thee, and thou mayst have justice before the Lord thy God. 14 Thou shalt not refuse the hire of the needy, and the poor, whether he be thy brother, or a stranger that dwelleth with thee in the land, and is within thy gates: 15 But thou shalt pay him the price of his labour the same day, before the going down of the sun, because he is poor, and with it maintaineth his life: lest he cry against thee to the Lord, and it be reputed to thee for a sin.

16 The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, nor the children for the fathers, but every one shall die for his own sin. 17 Thou shalt not pervert the judgment of the stranger nor of the fatherless, neither shalt thou take away the widow's raiment for a pledge. 18 Remember that thou wast a slave in Egypt, and the Lord thy God delivered thee from thence. Therefore I command thee to do this thing. 19 When thou hast reaped the corn in thy field, and hast forgot and left a sheaf, thou shalt not return to take it away: but thou shalt suffer the stranger, and the fatherless and the widow to take it away: that the Lord thy God may bless thee in all the works of thy hands. 20 If thou have gathered the fruit of thy olive trees, thou shalt not return to gather whatsoever remaineth on the trees: but shalt leave it for the stranger, for the fatherless, and the widow.

21 If thou make the vintage of thy vineyard, thou shalt not gather the clusters that remain, but they shall be for the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow. 22 Remember that thou also wast a bondman in Egypt, and therefore I command thee to do this thing.


Chapter 25

Stripes must not exceed forty. The ox is not to be muzzled. Of raising seed to the brother. Of the immodest woman. Of unjust weight. Of destroying the Amalecites.

1 If there be a controversy between men, and they call upon the judges: they shall give the prize of justice to him whom they perceive to be just: and him whom they find to be wicked, they shall condemn of wickedness. 2 And if they see that the offender be worthy of stripes: they shall lay him down, and shall cause him to be beaten before them. According to the measure of the sin shall the measure also of the stripes be: 3 Yet so, that they exceed not the number of forty: lest thy brother depart shamefully torn before thy eyes. 4 Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out thy corn on the floor. 5 When brethren dwell together, and one of them dieth without children, the wife of the deceased shall not marry to another: but his brother shall take her, and raise up seed for his brother:

4 "Not muzzle"... St. Paul understands this of the spiritual labourer in the church of God, who is not to be denied his maintenance. 1 Cor. 9. 8, 9, 10.

6 And the first son he shall have of her he shall call by his name, that his name be not abolished out of Israel. 7 But if he will not take his brother's wife, who by law belongeth to him, the woman shall go to the gate of the city, and call upon the ancients, and say: My husband's brother refuseth to raise up his brother's name in Israel: and will not take me to wife. 8 And they shall cause him to be sent for forthwith, and shall ask him. If he answer: I will not take her to wife: 9 The woman shall come to him before the ancients, and shall take off his shoe from his foot, and spit in his face, and say: So shall it be done to the man that will not build up his brother's house: 10 And his name shall be called in Israel, the house of the unshod.

11 If two men have words together, and one begin to fight against the other, and the other's wife willing to deliver her husband out of the hand of the stronger, shall put forth her hand, and take him by the secrets, 12 Thou shalt cut off her hand, neither shalt thou be moved with any pity in her regard. 13 Thou shalt not have divers weights in thy bag, a greater and a less: 14 Neither shall there be in thy house a greater bushel and a less. 15 Thou shalt have a just and a true weight, and thy bushel shall be equal and true: that thou mayest live a long time upon the land which the Lord thy God shall give thee.

16 For the Lord thy God abhorreth him that doth these things, and he hateth all injustice. 17 Remember what Amalec did to thee in the way when thou camest out of Egypt: 18 How he met thee: and slew the hindmost of the army, who sat down, being weary, when thou wast spent with hunger and labour, and he feared not God. 19 Therefore when the Lord thy God shall give thee rest, and shall have subdued all the nations round about in the land which he hath promised thee: thou shalt blot out his name from under heaven. See thou forget it not.

17 "Amalec"... This order for destroying the Amalecites, in the mystical sense, sheweth how hateful they are to God, and what punishments they are to look for from his justice, who attack and discourage his servants when they are but just come out, as it were, of the Egypt of this wicked world and being yet weak and fainthearted, are but beginning their journey to the land of promise.


Chapter 26

The form of words with which the firstfruits and tithes are to be offered. God's covenant.

1 And when thou art come into the land which the Lord thy God will give thee to possess, and hast conquered it, and dwellest in it: 2 Thou shalt take the first of all thy fruits, and put then? in a basket, and shalt go to the place which the Lord thy God shall choose, that his name may be invocated there: 3 And thou shalt go to the priest that shall be in those days, and say to him: I profess this day before the Lord thy God, that I am come into the land, for which he swore to our fathers, that he would give it us. 4 And the priest taking the basket at thy hand, shall set it before the altar of the Lord thy God: 5 And thou shalt speak thus in the sight of the Lord thy God: The Syrian pursued my father, who went down into Egypt, and sojourned there in a very small number, and grew into a nation great and strong and of an infinite multitude.

5 "The Syrian"... Laban. See Gen. 27.

6 And the Egyptians afflicted us, and persecuted us, laying on us most grievous burdens: 7 And we cried to the Lord God of our fathers: who heard us, and looked down upon our affliction, and labour, and distress: 8 And brought us out of Egypt with a strong hand, and a stretched out arm, with great terror, with signs and wonders: 9 And brought us into this place, and gave us this land flowing with milk and honey. 10 And therefore now I offer the firstfruits of the land which the Lord hath given me. And thou shalt leave them in the sight of the Lord thy God, adoring the Lord thy God.

11 And thou shalt feast in all the good things which the Lord thy God hath given thee, and thy house, thou and the Levite, and the stranger that is with thee. 12 When thou hast made an end of tithing all thy fruits, in the third year of tithes thou shalt give it to the Levite, and to the stranger, and to the fatherless, and to the widow, that they may eat within thy gates, and be filled: 13 And thou shalt speak thus in the sight of the Lord thy God: I have taken that which was sanctified out of my house, and I have given it to the Levite, and to the stranger, and to the fatherless, and to the widow, as thou hast commanded me: I have not transgressed thy commandments nor forgotten thy precepts. 14 I have not eaten of them is my mourning, nor separated them for any uncleanness, nor spent any thing of them in funerals. I have obeyed the voice of the Lord my God, and have done all things as thou hast commanded me. 15 Look from thy sanctuary, and thy high habitation of heaven, and bless thy people Israel, and the land which thou hast given us, as thou didst swear to our fathers, a land flowing with milk and honey.

16 This day the Lord thy God hath commanded thee to do these commandments and judgments: and to keep and fulfill them with all thy heart, and with all thy soul. 17 Thou hast chosen the Lord this day to be thy God, and to walk in his ways and keep his ceremonies, and precepts, and judgments, and obey his command. 18 And the Lord hath chosen thee this day, to be his peculiar people, as he hath spoken to thee, and to keep all his commandments: 19 And to make thee higher than all nations which he hath created, to his own praise, and name, and glory: that thou mayst be a holy people of the Lord thy God, as he hath spoken.


Chapter 27

The commandments must be written on stones: and an altar erected, and sacrifices offered. The observers of the commandments are to be blessed, and the transgressors cursed.

1 And Moses with the ancients of Israel commanded the people, saying: Keep every commandment that I command you this day. 2 And when you are passed over the Jordan into the land which the Lord thy God will give thee, thou shalt set up great stones, and shalt plaster them over with plaster, 3 That thou mayst write on them all the words of this law, when thou art passed over the Jordan: that thou mayst enter into the land which the Lord thy God will give thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, as he swore to thy fathers. 4 Therefore when you are passed over the Jordan, set up the stones which I command you this day, in mount Hebal, and thou shalt plaster them with plaster: 5 And thou shalt build there an altar to the Lord thy God, of stones which iron hath not touched,

6 And of stones not fashioned nor polished: and thou shalt offer upon it holocausts to the Lord thy God: 7 And shalt immolate peace victims, and eat there, and feast before the Lord thy God. 8 And thou shalt write upon the stones all the words of this law plainly and clearly, 9 And Moses and the priests of the race of Levi said to all Israel: Attend, and hear, O Israel: This day thou art made the people of the Lord thy God. 10 Thou shalt hear his voice, and do the commandments and justices which I command thee.

11 And Moses commanded the people in that day, saying: 12 These shall stand upon mount Garizim to bless the people, when you are passed the Jordan: Simeon, Levi, Juda, Issachar, Joseph, and Benjamin. 13 And over against them shall stand on mount Hebal to curse: Ruben, Gad, and Aser, and Zabulon, Dan, and Nephtali. 14 And the Levites shall pronounce, and say to all the men of Israel with a loud voice: 15 Cursed be the man that maketh a graven and molten thing, the abomination of the Lord, the work of the hands of artificers, and shall put it in a secret place: and all the people shall answer and say: Amen.

16 Cursed be he that honoureth not his father and mother: and all the people shall say: Amen. 17 Cursed be he that removeth his neighbour's landmarks: and all the people shall say: Amen. 18 Cursed be he that maketh the blind to wander out of his way: and all the people shall say: Amen. 19 Cursed be he that perverteth the judgment of the stranger, of the fatherless and the widow: and all the people shall say: Amen. 20 Cursed be he that lieth with his father's wife, and uncovereth his bed: and all the people shall say: Amen.

21 Cursed be he that lieth with any beast: and all the people shall say: Amen. 22 Cursed be he that lieth with his sister, the daughter of his father, or of his mother: and all the people shall say: Amen. 23 Cursed be he that lieth with his mother in law: and all the people shall say: Amen. 24 Cursed be he that secretly killeth his neighbour: and all the people shall say: Amen. 25 Cursed be he that taketh gifts, to slay an innocent person: and all the people shall say: Amen.

26 Cursed be he that abideth not in the words of this law, and fulfilleth them not in work: and all the people shall say: Amen.


Chapter 28

Many blessings are promised to observers of God's commandments: and curses threatened to transgressors.

1 Now if thou wilt hear the voice of the Lord thy God, to do and keep all his commandments, which I command thee this day, the Lord thy God will make thee higher than all the nations that are on the earth. 2 And all these blessings shall come upon thee and overtake thee: yet so if thou hear his precepts, 3 Blessed shalt thou be in the city, and blessed in the field. 4 Blessed shall be the fruit of thy womb, and the fruit of thy ground, and the fruit of thy cattle, the droves of thy herds, and the folds of thy sheep. 5 Blessed shall be thy barns and blessed thy stores.

2 "All these blessings"... In the Old Testament, God promised temporal blessings to the keepers of his law, heaven not being opened as yet; and that gross and sensual people being more moved with present and sensible things. But in the New Testament the goods that are promised us are spiritual and eternal; and temporal evils are turned into blessings.

6 Blessed shalt thou be coming in and going out. 7 The Lord shall cause thy enemies, that rise up against thee, to fall down before thy face: one way shall they come out against thee, and seven ways shall they flee before thee. 8 The Lord will send forth a blessing upon thy storehouses, and upon all the works of thy hands: and will bless thee in the land that thou shalt receive. 9 The Lord will raise thee up to be a holy people to himself, as he swore to thee: if thou keep the commandments of the Lord thy God, and walk in his ways. 10 And all the people of the earth shall see that the name of the Lord is invocated upon thee, and they shall fear thee.

11 The Lord will make thee abound with all goods, with the fruit of thy womb, and the fruit of thy cattle, with the fruit of thy land, which the Lord swore to thy fathers that he would give thee. 12 The Lord will open his excellent treasure, the heaven, that it may give rain in due season: and he will bless all the works of thy hands. And thou shalt lend to many nations, and shalt not borrow of any one. 13 And the Lord shall make thee the head and not the tail: and thou shalt be always above, and not beneath: yet so if thou wilt hear the commandments of the Lord thy God which I command thee this day, and keep and do them, 14 And turn not away from them neither to the right hand, nor to the left, nor follow strange gods, nor worship them. 15 But if thou wilt not hear the voice of the Lord thy God, to keep and to do all his commandments and ceremonies, which I command thee this day, all these curses shall come upon thee, and overtake thee.

15 "All these curses"... Thus God dealt with the transgressors of his law in the Old Testament: but now he often suffers sinners to prosper in this world, rewarding them for some little good they have done, and reserving their punishment for the other world.

16 Cursed shalt thou be in the city, cursed in the field. 17 Cursed shall be thy barn, and cursed thy stores. 18 Cursed shall be the fruit of thy womb, and the fruit of thy ground, the herds of thy oxen, and the flocks of thy sheep. 19 Cursed shalt thou be coming in, and cursed going out. 20 The Lord shall send upon thee famine and hunger, and a rebuke upon all the works which thou shalt do: until he consume and destroy thee quickly, for thy most wicked inventions, by which thou hast forsaken me.

21 May the Lord set the pestilence upon thee, until he consume thee out of the land, which thou shalt go in to possess. 22 May the Lord afflict thee with miserable want, with the fever and with cold, with burning and with heat, and with corrupted air and with blasting, and pursue thee till thou perish. 23 Be the heaven, that is over thee, of brass: and the ground thou treadest on, of iron. 24 The Lord give thee dust for rain upon thy land, and let ashes come down from heaven upon thee, till thou be consumed. 25 The Lord make thee to fall down before thy enemies, one way mayst thou go out against them, and flee seven ways, and be scattered throughout all the kingdoms of the earth.

26 And be thy carcass meat for all the Fowls of the air, and the beasts of the earth, and be there none to drive them away. 27 The Lord strike thee with the ulcer of Egypt, and the part of thy body, by which the dung is cast out, with the scab and with the itch: so that thou canst not be healed. 28 The Lord strike thee with madness and blindness and fury of mind. 29 And mayst thou grope at midday as the blind is wont to grope in the dark, and not make straight thy ways. And mayst thou at all times suffer wrong, and be oppressed with violence, and mayst thou have no one to deliver thee. 30 Mayst thou take a wife, and another sleep with her. Mayst thou build a house, and not dwell therein. Mayest thou plant a vineyard and not gather the vintage thereof.

31 May thy ox be slain before thee, and thou not eat thereof. May thy ass be taken away in thy sight, and not restored to thee. May thy sheep be given to thy enemies, and may there be none to help thee. 32 May thy sons and thy daughters be given to another people, thy eyes looking on, and languishing at the sight of them all the day, and may there be no strength in thy hand. 33 May a people which thou knowest not, eat the fruits of thy land, and all thy labours: and mayst thou always suffer oppression, and be crushed at all times. 34 And be astonished at the terror of those things which thy eyes shall see: 35 May the Lord strike thee with a very sore ulcer in the knees and in the legs, and be thou incurable from the sole of the foot to the top of the head.

36 The Lord shall bring thee, and thy king, whom thou shalt have appointed over thee, into a nation which thou and thy fathers know not: and there thou shalt serve strange gods, wood and stone. 37 And thou shalt be lost, as a proverb and a byword to all people, among whom the Lord shall bring thee in. 38 Thou shalt cast much seed into the ground, and gather little: because the locusts shall consume all. 39 Thou shalt plant a vineyard, and dig it, and shalt not drink the wine, nor gather any thing thereof: because it shall be wasted with worms. 40 Thou shalt have olive trees in all thy borders, and shalt not be anointed with the oil: for the olives shall fall off and perish.

41 Thou shalt beget sons and daughters, and shalt not enjoy them: because they shall be led into captivity. 42 The blast shall consume all the trees and the fruits of thy ground. 43 The stranger that liveth with thee in the land, shall rise up over thee, and shall be higher: and thou shalt go down, and be lower. 44 He shall lend to thee, and thou shalt not lend to him. He shall be as the head, and thou shalt be the tail. 45 And all these curses shall come upon thee, and shall pursue and overtake thee, till thou perish: because thou heardst not the voice of the Lord thy God, and didst not keep his commandments and ceremonies which he commanded thee.

46 And they shall be as signs and wonders on thee, and on thy seed for ever. 47 Because thou didst not serve the Lord thy God with joy and gladness of heart, for the abundance of all things: 48 Thou shalt serve thy enemy, whom the Lord will send upon thee, in hunger, and thirst, and nakedness, and in want of all things: and he shall put an iron yoke upon thy neck, till he consume thee. 49 The Lord will bring upon thee a nation from afar, and from the uttermost ends of the earth, like an eagle that flyeth swiftly, whose tongue thou canst not understand, 50 A most insolent nation, that will shew no regard to the ancients, nor have pity on the infant,

51 And will devour the fruit of thy cattle, and the fruits of thy land: until thou be destroyed, and will leave thee no wheat, nor wine, nor oil, nor herds of oxen, nor flocks of sheep: until he destroy thee. 52 And consume thee in all thy cities, and thy strong and high walls be brought down, wherein thou trustedst in all thy land. Thou shalt be besieged within thy gates in all thy land which the Lord thy God will give thee: 53 And thou shalt eat the fruit of thy womb, and the flesh of thy sons and of thy daughters, which the Lord thy God shall give thee, in the distress and extremity wherewith thy enemy shall oppress thee. 54 The man that is nice among you, and very delicate, shall envy his own brother, and his wife, that lieth in his bosom, 55 So that he will not give them of the flesh of his children, which he shall eat: because he hath nothing else in the siege and the want, wherewith thy enemies shall distress thee within all thy gates.

56 The tender and delicate woman, that could not go upon the ground, nor set down her foot for over much niceness and tenderness, will envy her husband who lieth in her bosom, the flesh of her son, and of her daughter, 57 And the filth of the afterbirths, that come forth from between her thighs, and the children that are born the same hour. For they shall eat them secretly for the want of all things, in the siege and distress, wherewith thy enemy shall oppress thee within thy gates. 58 If thou wilt not keep, and fulfill all the words of this law, that are written in this volume, and fear his glorious and terrible name: that is, The Lord thy God: 59 The Lord shall increase thy plagues, and the plagues of thy seed, plagues great and lasting, infirmities grievous and perpetual. 60 And he shall bring back on thee all the afflictions of Egypt, which thou wast afraid of, and they shall stick fast to thee.

61 Moreover the Lord will bring upon thee all the diseases, and plagues, that are not written in the volume of this law till he consume thee: 62 And you shall remain few in number, who before were as the stars of heaven for multitude, because thou heardst not the voice of the Lord thy God. 63 And as the Lord rejoiced upon you before doing good to you, and multiplying you: so he shall rejoice destroying and bringing you to nought, so that you shall be taken away from the land which thou shalt go in to possess. 64 The Lord shall scatter thee among all people, from the farthest parts of the earth to the ends thereof: and there thou shalt serve strange gods, which both thou art ignorant of and thy fathers, wood and stone. 65 Neither shalt thou be quiet, even in those nations, nor shall there be any rest for the sole of thy foot. For the Lord will give thee a fearful heart, and languishing eyes, and a soul consumed with pensiveness:

66 And thy life shall be as it were hanging before thee. Thou shalt fear night and day, neither shalt thou trust thy life. 67 In the morning thou shalt say: Who will grant me evening? and at evening: Who will grant me morning? for the fearfulness of thy heart, wherewith thou shalt be terrified, and for those things which thou shalt see with thy eyes. 68 The Lord shall bring thee again with ships into Egypt, by the way whereof he said to thee that thou shouldst see it no more. There shalt thou be set to sale to thy enemies for bondmen and bondwomen, and no man shall buy you.


Chapter 29

The covenant is solemnly confirmed between God and his people. Threats against those that shall break it.

1 These are the words of the covenant which the Lord commanded Moses to make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab: beside that covenant which he made with them in Horeb. 2 And Moses called all Israel, and said to them: You have seen all the things that the Lord did before you in the land of Egypt to Pharao, and to all his servants, and to his whole land. 3 The great temptations, which thy eyes have seen, those mighty signs and wonders, 4 And the Lord hath not given you a heart to understand, and eyes to see, and ears that may hear, unto this present day. 5 He hath brought you forty years through the desert: your garments are not worn out, neither are the shoes of your feet consumed with age.

4 "Hath not given you"... Through your own fault and because you resisted his grace.

6 You have not eaten bread, nor have you drunk wine or strong drink: that you might know that I am the Lord your God. 7 And you came to this place: sand Sehon king of Hesebon, and Og king of Basan, came out against us to fight. And we slew them. 8 And took their land, and delivered it for a possession to Ruben and Gad, and the half tribe of Manasses. 9 Keep therefore the words of this covenant, and fulfill them: that you may understand all that you do. 10 You all stand this day before the Lord your God, your princes, and tribes, and ancients, and doctors, all the people of Israel,

11 Your children and your wives, and the stranger that abideth with thee in the camp, besides the hewers of wood, and them that bring water: 12 That thou mayst pass in the covenant of the Lord thy God, and in the oath which this day the Lord thy God maketh with thee. 13 That he may raise thee up a people to himself, and he may be thy God as he hath spoken to thee, and as he swore to thy fathers Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. 14 Neither with you only do I make this covenant, and confirm these oaths, 15 But with all that are present and that are absent.

16 For you know how we dwelt in the land of Egypt, and how we have passed through the midst of nations, and passing through them, 17 You have seen their abominations and filth, that is to say, their idols, wood and stone, silver and gold, which they worshipped. 18 Lest perhaps there should be among you a man or a woman, a family or a tribe, whose heart is turned away this day from the Lord our God, to go and serve the gods of those nations: and there should be among you a root bringing forth gall and bitterness. 19 And when he shall hear the words of this oath, he should bless himself in his heart saying: I shall have peace, and will walk on in the naughtiness of my heart: and the drunken may consume the thirsty, 20 And the Lord should not forgive him: but his wrath and jealousy against that man should be exceedingly enkindled at that time, and all the curses that are written in this volume should light upon him: and the Lord should blot out his name from under heaven,

19 "The drunken"... absumat ebria sitientem. It is a proverbial expression, which may either be understood, as spoken by the sinner, blessing, that is, flattering himself in his sins with the imagination of peace, and so great an abundance as may satisfy, and as it were, consume all thirst and want: or it may be referred to the root of bitterness, spoken of before, which being drunken with sin may attract, and by that means consume, such as thirst after the like evils.

21 And utterly destroy him out of all the tribes of Israel, according to the curses that are contained in the book of this law and covenant: 22 And the following generation shall say, and the children that shall be born hereafter, and the strangers that shall come from afar, seeing the plagues of that land and the evils wherewith the Lord hath afflicted it, 23 Burning it with brimstone, and the heat of salt, so that it cannot be sown any more, nor any green thing grow therein, after the example of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrha, Adama and Seboim, which the Lord destroyed in his wrath and indignation: 24 And all the nations shall say: Why hath the Lord done thus to this land? what meaneth this exceeding great heat of his wrath? 25 And they shall answer: Because they forsook the covenant of the Lord, which he made with their fathers, when he brought them out of the land of Egypt:

26 And they have served strange gods, and adored them, whom they knew not, and for whom they had not been assigned: 27 Therefore the wrath of the Lord was kindled against this land, to bring upon it all the curses that are written in this volume: 28 And he hath cast them out of their land, in anger and in wrath, and in very great indignation, and hath thrown them into a strange land, as it is seen this day. 29 Secret things to the Lord our God: things that are manifest, to us and to our children for ever, that we may do all the words of this law.

29 "Secret things"... As much as to say, secret things belong to, and are known to, God alone; our business must be to observe what he has revealed and manifested to us, and to direct our lives accordingly.


Chapter 30

Great mercies are promised to the penitent: God's commandment is feasible. Life and death are set before them.

1 Now when all these things shall be come upon thee, the blessing or the curse, which I have set forth before thee, and thou shalt be touched with repentance of thy heart among all the nations, into which the Lord thy God shall have scattered thee, 2 And shalt return to him, and obey his commandments, as I command thee this day, thou and thy children, with all thy heart, and with all thy soul: 3 The Lord thy God will bring back again thy captivity, and will have mercy on thee, and gather thee again out of all the nations, into which he scattered thee before. 4 If thou be driven as far as the poles of heaven, the Lord thy God will fetch thee back from thence, 5 And will take thee to himself, and bring thee into the land which thy fathers possessed, and thou shalt possess it: and blessing thee, he will make thee more numerous than were thy fathers.

6 The Lord thy God will circumcise thy heart, and the heart of thy seed: that then mayst love the Lord thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul, that thou mayst live. 7 And he will turn all these curses upon thy enemies, and upon them that hate and persecute thee. 8 But thou shalt return, and hear the voice of the Lord thy God, and shalt do all the commandments which I command thee this day: 9 And the Lord thy God will make thee abound in all the works of thy hands, in the fruit of thy womb, and in the fruit of thy cattle, in the fruitfulness of thy land, and in the plenty of all things. For the Lord will return to rejoice over thee in all good things, as he rejoiced in thy fathers: 10 Yet so if thou hear the voice of the Lord thy God, and keep his precepts and ceremonies, which are written in this law: and return to the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul.

11 This commandment, that I command thee this day is not above thee, nor far off from thee: 12 Nor is it in heaven, that thou shouldst say: Which of us can go up to heaven to bring it unto us, and we may hear and fulfill it in work? 13 Nor is it beyond the sea: that thou mayst excuse thyself, and say: Which of us can cross the sea, and bring it unto us: that we may hear, and do that which is commanded? 14 But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth and in thy heart, that thou mayst do it. 15 Consider that I have set before thee this day life and good, and on the other hand death and evil:

16 That thou mayst love the Lord thy God, and walk in his ways, and keep his commandments and ceremonies and judgments, and thou mayst live, and he may multiply thee, and bless thee in the land, which thou shalt go in to possess. 17 But if thy heart be turned away, so that thou wilt not hear, and being deceived with error thou adore strange gods, and serve them: 18 I foretell thee this day that thou shalt perish, and shalt remain but a short time in the land, to which thou shalt pass over the Jordan, and shalt go in to possess it. 19 I call heaven and earth to witness this day, that I have set before you life and death, blessing and cursing. Choose therefore life, that both thou and thy seed may live: 20 And that thou mayst love the Lord thy God, and obey his voice, and adhere to him (for he is thy life, and the length of thy days,) that thou mayst dwell in the land, for which the Lord swore to thy fathers Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob that he would give it them.


Chapter 31

Moses encourageth the people, and Josue, who is appointed to succeed him. He delivereth the law to the priests. God foretelleth that the people will often forsake him, and that he will punish them. He commandeth Moses to write a canticle, as a constant remembrancer of the law.

1 And Moses went, and spoke all these words to all Israel, 2 And he said to them: I am this day a hundred and twenty years old, I can no longer go out and come in, especially as the Lord also hath said to me: O Thou shalt not pass over this Jordan. 3 The Lord thy God then will pass over before thee: he will destroy all these nations in thy sight, and thou shalt possess them: and this Josue shall go over before thee, as the Lord hath spoken. 4 And the Lord shall do to them as he did to Sehon and Og the kings of the Amorrhites, and to their land, and shall destroy them. 5 Therefore when the Lord shall have delivered these also to you, you shall do in like manner to them as I have commanded you,

6 Do manfully and be of good heart: fear not, nor be ye dismayed at their sight: for the Lord thy God he himself is thy leader, and will not leave thee nor forsake thee. 7 And Moses called Josue, and said to him before all Israel: Take courage, and be valiant: for thou shalt bring this people into the land which the Lord swore he would give to their fathers, and thou shalt divide it by lot. 8 And the Lord who is your leader, he himself will be with thee: he will not leave thee, nor forsake thee: fear not, neither be dismayed. 9 And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it to the priests the sons of Levi, who carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord, and to all the ancients of Israel. 10 And he commanded them, saying: After seven years, in the year of remission, in the feast of tabernacles,

11 When all Israel come together, to appear in the sight of the Lord thy God in the place which the Lord shall choose, thou shalt read the words of this law before all Israel, in their hearing, 12 And the people being all assembled together, both men and women, children and strangers, that are within thy gates: that hearing they may learn, and fear the Lord your God, and keep, and fulfill all the words of this law: 13 That their children also, who now are ignorant, may hear, and fear the Lord their God, all the days that they live in the land whither you are going over the Jordan to possess it. 14 And the Lord said to Moses: Behold the days of thy death are nigh: call Josue, and stand ye in the tabernacle of the testimony, that I may give him a charge. So Moses and Josue went and stood in the tabernacle of the testimony: 15 And the Lord appeared there in the pillar of a cloud, which stood in the entry of the tabernacle.

16 And the Lord said to Moses: Behold thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, and this people rising up will go a fornicating after strange gods in the land, to which it goeth in to dwell: there will they forsake me, and will make void the covenant, which I have made with them, 17 And my wrath shall be kindled against them in that day: and I will forsake them, and will hide my face from them, and they shall be devoured: all evils and afflictions shall find them, so that they shall say in that day: In truth it is because God is not with me, that these evils have found me. 18 But I will hide, and cover my face in that day, for all the evils which they have done, because they have followed strange gods. 19 Now therefore write you this canticle, and teach the children of Israel: that they may know it by heart, and sing it by mouth, and this song may be unto me for a testimony among the children of Israel. 20 For I will bring them into the land, for which I swore to their fathers, that floweth with milk and honey. And when they have eaten, and are full and fat, they will turn away after strange gods, and will serve them: and will despise me, and make void my covenant.

21 And after many evils and afflictions shall have come upon them, this canticle shall answer them for a testimony, which no oblivion shall take away out of the mouth of their seed. For I know their thoughts, and what they are about to do this day, before that I bring them into the land which I have promised them. 22 Moses therefore wrote the canticle and taught it to the children of Israel. 23 And the Lord commanded Josue the son of Nun, and said: Take courage, and be valiant: for thou shalt bring the children of Israel into the land which I have promised, and I will be with thee. 24 Therefore after Moses had wrote the words of this law in a volume, and finished it: 25 He commanded the Levites, who carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord. saying:

26 Take this book, and put it in the side of the ark of the covenant of the Lord your God: that it may be there for a testimony against thee. 27 For I know thy obstinacy, and thy most stiff neck, While I am yet living, and going in with you, you have always been rebellious against the Lord: how much more when I shall be dead? 28 Gather unto me all the ancients of your tribes, and your doctors, and I will speak these words in their hearing, and will call heaven and earth to witness against them. 29 For I know that, after my death, you will do wickedly, and will quickly turn aside from the way that I have commanded you: and evils shall come upon you in the latter times, when you shall do evil in the sight of the Lord, to provoke him by the works of your hands. 30 Moses therefore spoke, in the hearing of the whole assembly of Israel, the words of this canticle, and finished it even to the end.


Chapter 32

A canticle for the remembrance of the law. Moses is commanded to go up into a mountain, from whence he shall see the promised land but not enter into it.

1 Hear, O ye heavens, the things I speak, let the earth give ear to the words of my mouth. 2 Let my doctrine gather as the rain, let my speech distil as the dew, as a shower upon the herb, and as drops upon the grass. 3 Because I will invoke the name of the Lord: give ye magnificence to our God. 4 The works of God are perfect, and all his ways are judgments: God is faithful and without any iniquity, he is just and right. 5 They have sinned against him, and are nose of his children in their filth: they are a wicked and perverse generation.

6 Is this the return thou makest to the Lord, O foolish and senseless people? Is not he thy father, that hath possessed thee, and made thee, and created thee? 7 Remember the days of old, think upon every generation: ask thy father, and he will declare to thee: thy elders and they will tell thee. 8 When the Most High divided the nations: when he separated the sons of Adam, he appointed the bounds of people according to the number of the children of Israel. 9 But the Lord's portion is his people: Jacob the lot of his inheritance. 10 He found him in a desert land, in a place of horror, and of vast wilderness: he led him about, and taught him: and he kept him as the apple of his eye.

11 As the eagle enticing her young to fly, and hovering over them, he spread his wings, and hath taken him and carried him on his shoulders. 12 The Lord alone was his leader: and there was no strange god with him. 13 He set him upon high land: that he might eat the fruits of the fields, that he might suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the hardest stone, 14 Butter of the herd, and milk of the sheep with the fat of lambs, and of the rams of the breed of Basan: and goats with the marrow of wheat, and might drink the purest blood of the grape. 15 The beloved grew fat, and kicked: he grew fat, and thick and gross, he forsook God who made him, and departed from God his saviour.

16 They provoked him by strange gods, and stirred him up to anger, with their abominations. 17 They sacrificed to devils and not to God: to gods whom they knew not: that were newly come up, whom their fathers worshipped not. 18 Thou hast forsaken the God that beget thee, and hast forgotten the Lord that created thee. 19 The Lord saw, and was moved to wrath: because his own sons and daughters provoked him. 20 And he said: I will hide my face from them, and will consider what their last end shall be: for it is a perverse generation, and unfaithful children.

21 They have provoked me with that which was no god, and have angered me with their vanities: and I will provoke them with that which is no people, and will vex them with a foolish nation. 22 A fire is kindled in my wrath, and shall burn even to the lowest hell: and shall devour the earth with her increase, and shall burn the foundations of the mountains. 23 I will heap evils upon them, and will spend my arrows among them. 24 They shall be consumed with famine, and birds shall devour them with a most bitter bite: I will send the teeth of beasts upon them, with the fury of creatures that trail upon the ground, and of serpents. 25 Without, the sword shall lay them waste, and terror within, both the young man and the virgin, the sucking child with the man in years.

26 I said: Where are they? I will make the memory of them to cease from among men. 27 But for the wrath of the enemies I have deferred it: lest perhaps their enemies might be proud, and should say: Our mighty hand, and not the Lord, hath done all these things. 28 They are a nation without counsel, and without wisdom. 29 O that they would be wise and would understand, and would provide for their last end. 30 How should one pursue after a thousand, and two chase ten thousand? Was it not, because their God had sold them, and the Lord had shut them up?

31 For our God is not as their gods: our enemies themselves are judges. 32 Their vines are of the vineyard of Sodom, and of the suburbs of Gomorrha: their grapes are grapes of gall, and their clusters most bitter. 33 Their wine is the gall of dragons, and the venom of asps, which is incurable. 34 Are not these things stored up with me, and sealed up in my treasures? 35 Revenge is mine, and I will repay them in due time, that their foot may slide: the day of destruction is at hand, and the time makes haste to come.

36 The Lord will judge his people, and will have mercy on his servants: he shall see that their hand is weakened, and that they who were shut up have also failed, and they that remained are consumed. 37 And he shall say: Where are their gods, in whom they trusted? 38 Of whose victims they ate the fat, and drank the wine of their drink offerings: let them arise and help you, and protect you in your distress. 39 See ye that I alone am, and there is no other God besides me: I will kill and I will make to live: I will strike, and I will heal, and there is none that can deliver out of my hand. 40 I will lift up my hand to heaven, and I will say: I live for ever.

41 If I shall whet my sword as the lightning, and my hand take hold on judgment: I will render vengeance to my enemies, and repay them that hate me. 42 I will make my arrows drunk with blood, and my sword shall devour flesh, of the blood of the slain and of the captivity, of the bare head of the enemies. 43 Praise his people, ye nations, for he will revenge the blood of his servants: and will render vengeance to their enemies, and he will be merciful to the land of his people. 44 So Moses came and spoke all the words of this canticle in the ears of the people, and Josue the son of Nun. 45 And he ended all these words, speaking to all Israel.

46 And he said to them: Set your hearts on all the words, which I testify to you this day: which you shall command your children to observe and to do, and to fulfill all that is written in this law: 47 For they are not commanded you in vain, but that every one should live in them, and that doing them you may continue a long time in the land whither you are going over the Jordan to possess it. 48 And the Lord spoke to Moses the same day, saying: 49 Go up into this mountain Abarim, (that is to say, of passages,) unto mount Nebo, which is in the land of Moab over against Jericho: and see the land of Chanaan, which I will deliver to the children of Israel to possess, and die thou in the mountain. 50 When thou art gone up into it thou shalt be gathered to thy people, as Aaron thy brother died in mount Her, and was gathered to his people:

51 Because you trespassed against me in the midst of the children of Israel, at the waters of contradiction in Cades of the desert of Sin: and you did not sanctify me among the children of Israel. 52 Thou shalt see the land before thee, which I will give to the children of Israel, but thou shalt not enter into it.


Chapter 33

Moses before his death blesseth the tribes of Israel.

1 This is the blessing, wherewith the man of God Moses blessed the children of Israel, before his death. 2 And he said: The Lord came from Sinai, and from Seir he rose up to us: he hath appeared from mount Pharan, and with him thousands of saints. In his right hand a fiery law. 3 He hath loved the people, all the saints are in his hand: and they that approach to his feet, shall receive of his doctrine. 4 Moses commanded us a law, the inheritance of the multitude of Jacob. 5 He shall be king with the most right, the princes of the people being assembled with the tribes of Israel.

6 Let Ruben live, and not die, and be he small in number. 7 This is the blessing of Juda. Hear, O Lord, the voice of Juda, and bring him in unto his people: his hands shall fight for him, and he shall be his helper against his enemies. 8 To Levi also he said: Thy perfection, and thy doctrine be to thy holy man, whom thou hast proved in the temptation, and judged at the waters of contradiction: 9 Who hath said to his father, and to his mother: I do not know you; and to his brethren: I know you not: and their own children they have not known. These have kept thy word, and observed thy covenant, 10 Thy judgments, O Jacob, and thy law, O Israel: they shall put incense in thy wrath and holocaust upon thy altar.

8 "Holy man"... Aaron and his successors in the priesthood.

9 "Who hath said"... It is the duty of the priestly tribe to prefer God's honour and service before all considerations of flesh and blood: in such manner as to behave as strangers to their nearest akin, when these would withdraw them from the business of their calling.

11 Bless, O Lord, his strength, and receive the works of his hands. Strike the backs of his enemies, and let not them that hate him rise. 12 And to Benjamin he said: The best beloved of the Lord shall dwell confidently in him: as in a bride chamber shall he abide all the day long, and between his shoulders shall be rest. 13 To Joseph also he said: Of the blessing of the Lord be his land, of the fruits of heaven, and of the dew, and of the deep that lieth beneath. 14 Of the fruits brought forth by the sun and by the moon. 15 Of the tops of the ancient mountains, of the fruits of the everlasting hills:

12 "Shall dwell"... This seems to allude to the temple being built in the confines of the tribe of Benjamin.

16 And of the fruits of the earth, and of the fulness thereof. The blessing of him that appeared in the bush, come upon the head of Joseph, and upon the crown of the Nazarite among his brethren. 17 His beauty as of the firstling of a bullock, his horns as the horns of a rhinoceros: with them shall he push the nations even to the ends of the earth These are the multitudes of Ephraim and these the thousands of Manasses. 18 And to Zabulon he said: Rejoice, O Zabulon, in thy going out; and Issachar in thy tabernacles. 19 They shall call the people to the mountain: there shall they sacrifice the victims of justice. Who shall suck as milk the abundance of the sea, and the hidden treasures of the sands. 20 And to Gad he said: Blessed be Gad in his breadth: he hath rested as a lion, and hath seized upon the arm and the top of the head.

16 "The Nazarite"... See the note on Gen. 49. 26.

21 And he saw his pre-eminence, that in his portion the teacher was laid up: who was with the princes of the people, and did the justices of the Lord, and his judgment with Israel. 22 To Dan also he said: Dan is a young lion, he shall flow plentifully from Basan. 23 And to Nephtali he said: Nephtali shall enjoy abundance, and shall be full of the blessings of the Lord: he shall possess the sea and the south. 24 To Aser also he said: Let Aser be blessed with children, let him be acceptable to his brethren, and let him dip his foot in oil. 25 His shoe shall be iron and brass. As the days of thy youth, so also shall thy old age be.

21 "He saw"... The pre-eminence of the tribe of Gad, to which this alludeth, was their having the lawgiver Moses buried in their borders; though the particular place was not known.

23 "The sea"... The lake of Genesareth.

26 There is no other God like the God of the rightest: he that is mounted upon the heaven is thy helper. By his magnificence the clouds run hither and thither. 27 His dwelling is above, and underneath are the everlasting arms: he shall cast out the enemy from before thee, and shall say: Be thou brought to nought. 28 Israel shall dwell in safety, and alone. The eye of Jacob in a land of corn and wine, and the heavens shall be misty with dew. 29 Blessed are thou, Israel: who is like to thee, O people, that art saved by the Lord? the shield of thy help, and the sword of thy glory: thy enemies shall deny thee, and thou shalt tread upon their necks.

27 "Underneath are the everlasting arms"... Though the dwelling of God be above in heaven, his arms are always stretched out to help us here below.


Chapter 34

Moses seeth the promised land, but is not suffered to go into it. He dieth at the age of 120 years. God burieth his body secretly, and all Israel mourn for him thirty days. Josue, replenished (by imposition of Moses's hands) with the spirit of God, succeedeth. But Moses, for his special familiarity with God, and for most wonderful miracles, is commended above all other prophets.

1 Then Moses went up from the plains of Moab upon mount Nebo, to the top of Phasga over against Jericho: and the Lord shewed him all the land of Galaad as far as Dan. 2 And all Nephtali, and the land of Ephraim and Manasses, and all the land of Juda unto the furthermost sea, 3 And the south part, and the breadth of the plain of Jericho the city of palm trees as far as Segor. 4 And the Lord said to him: This is the land, for which I swore to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, saying: I will give it to thy seed. Thou hast seen it with thy eyes, and shalt not pass over to it. 5 And Moses the servant of the Lord died there, in the land of Moab, by the commandment of the Lord:

5 "Died there"... This last chapter of Deuteronomy, in which the death of Moses is related, was written by Josue, or by some of the prophets.

6 And he buried him in the valley of the land of Moab over against Phogor: and no man hath known of his sepulchre until this present day. 7 Moses was a hundred and twenty years old when he died: his eye was not dim, neither were his teeth moved. 8 And the children of Israel mourned for him in the plains of Moab thirty days: and the days of their mourning in which they mourned for Moses were ended. 9 And Josue the son of Nun was filled with the spirit of wisdom, because Moses had laid his hands upon him. And the children of Israel obeyed him, and did as the Lord commanded Moses. 10 And there arose no more a prophet in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face,

6 "He buried him"... viz. by the ministry of angels, and would have the place of his burial to be unknown, lest the Israelites, who were so prone to idolatry, might worship him with divine honours.

11 In all the signs and wonders, which he sent by him, to do in the land of Egypt to Pharao, and to all his servants, and to his whole land, 12 And all the mighty hand, and great miracles, which Moses did before all Israel.

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