Book of Numbers, The Book of Numbers Commentary, Online Bible Study

Book of Numbers, The Book of Numbers Commentary, Online Bible Study

"And the people began to be weary... and speaking against God and Moses, they said: Why didst thou bring us out of Egypt, to die in the wilderness? Wherefore the Lord sent among the people fiery serpents, which bit them and killed many of them. Upon which they came to Moses, and said: We have sinned, because we have spoken against the Lord and thee: pray that he may take away these serpents from us."
Book Of Numbers

Chapter 1

The children of Israel are numbered: the Levites are designed to serve the tabernacle.

1 And the Lord spoke to Moses in the desert of Sinai in the tabernacle of the covenant, the first day of the second month, the second year of their going out of Egypt, saying: 2 Take the sum of all the congregation of the children of Israel by their families, and houses, and the names of every one, as many as are of the male sex, 3 From twenty years old and upwards, of all the men of Israel fit for war, and you shall number them by their troops, thou and Aaron. 4 And there shall be with you the princes of the tribes, and of the houses in their kindreds, 5 Whose names are these: Of Ruben, Elisur the son of Sedeur.

6 Of Simeon, Salamiel the son of Surisaddai. 7 Of Juda, Nahasson the son of Aminadab. 8 Of Issachar, Nathanael the son of Suar. 9 Of Zabulon, Eliab the son of Helon. 10 And of the sons of Joseph: of Ephraim, Elisama the son of Ammiud: of Manasses, Gamaliel the son of Phadassur.

11 Of Benjamin, Abidan the son of Gedeon. 12 Of Dan, Ahiezer the son of Ammisaddai. 13 Of Aser, Phegiel the son of Ochran. 14 Of Gad, Eliasaph the son of Duel. 15 Of Nephtali, Ahira the son of Enan.

16 These are the most noble princes of the multitude by their tribes and kindreds, and the chiefs of the army of Israel: 17 Whom Moses and Aaron took with all the multitude of the common people: 18 And assembled them on the first day of the second month, reckoning them up by the kindreds, and houses, and families, and heads, and names of every one from twenty years old and upward, 19 As the Lord had commanded Moses. And they were numbered in the desert of Sinai. 20 Of Ruben the eldest son of Israel, by their generations and families and houses and names of every head, all that were of the male sex, from twenty years old and upward, that were able to go forth to war,

21 Were forty-six thousand five hundred. 22 Of the sons of Simeon by their generations and families, and houses of their kindreds, were reckoned up by the names and heads of every one, all that were of the male sex, from twenty years old and upward, that were able to go forth to war, 23 Fifty-nine thousand three hundred. 24 Of the sons of Gad, by their generations and families and houses of their kindreds were reckoned up by the names of every one from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war, 25 Forty-five thousand six hundred and fifty.

26 Of the sons of Juda, by their generations and families and houses of their kindreds, by the names of every one from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war, 27 Were reckoned up seventy-four thousand six hundred. 28 Of the sons of Issachar, by their generations and families and houses of their kindreds, by the names of every one from twenty years old and upward, all that could go forth to war, 29 Were reckoned up fifty-four thousand four hundred. 30 Of the sons of Zabulon, by the generations and families and houses of their kindreds, were reckoned up by the names of every one from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war,

31 Fifty-seven thousand four hundred. 32 Of the sons of Joseph, namely, of the sons of Ephraim, by the generations and families and houses of their kindreds, were reckoned up by the names of every one, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war, 33 Forty thousand five hundred. 34 Moreover of the sons of Manasses, by the generations and families and houses of their kindreds, were reckoned up by the names of every one from twenty years old and upward, all that could go forth to war, 35 Thirty-two thousand two hundred.

36 Of the sons of Benjamin, by their generations and families and houses of their kindreds, were reckoned up by the names of every one from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war, 37 Thirty-five thousand four hundred. 38 Of the sons of Dan, by their generations and families and houses of their kindreds, were reckoned up by the names of every one from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war, 39 Sixty-two thousand seven hundred. 40 Of the sons of Aser, by their generations and families and houses of their kindreds, were reckoned up by the names of every one from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war,

41 Forty-one thousand and five hundred. 42 Of the sons of Nephtali, by their generations and families and houses of their kindreds, were reckoned up by the names of every one from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war, 43 Fifty-three thousand four hundred. 44 These era they who were numbered by Moses and Aaron, and the twelve princes of Israel, every one by the houses of their kindreds. 45 And the whole number of the children of Israel by their houses and families, from twenty years old and upward, that were able to go to war,

46 Were six hundred and three thousand five hundred and fifty men. 47 But the Levites in the tribes of their families were not numbered with them. 48 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 49 Number not the tribe of Levi, neither shalt thou put down the sum of them with the children of Israel: 50 But appoint them over the tabernacle of the testimony, and all the vessels thereof, and whatsoever pertaineth to the ceremonies. They shall carry the tabernacle and all the furniture thereof: and they shall minister, and shall encamp round about the tabernacle.

51 When you are to go forward, the Levites shall take down the tabernacle: when you are to camp, they shall set it up. What stranger soever cometh to it, shall be slain. 52 And the children of Israel shall camp every man by his troops and bands and army. 53 But the Levites shall pitch their tents round about the tabernacle, lest there come indignation upon the multitude of the children of Israel, and they shall keep watch, and guard the tabernacle of the testimony. 54 And the children of Israel did according to all things which the Lord had commanded Moses.


Chapter 2

The order of the tribes in their camp.

1 And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying: 2 All the children of Israel shall camp by their troops, ensigns, and standards, and the houses of their kindreds, round about the tabernacle of the covenant. 3 On the east Juda shall pitch his tents by the bands of his army: and the prince of his sons shall be Nahasson the son of Aminadab. 4 And the whole sum of the fighting men of his stock, were seventy-four thousand six hundred. 5 Next unto him they of the tribe of Issachar encamped, whose prince was Nathanael, the son of Suar.

6 And the whole number of his fighting men were fifty-four thousand four hundred. 7 In the tribe of Zabulon the prince was Eliab the son of Helon. 8 And all the army of fighting men of his stock, were fifty-seven thousand four hundred. 9 All that were numbered in the camp of Juda, were a hundred and eighty-six thousand four hundred: and they by their troops shall march first. 10 In the camp of the sons of Ruben, on the south side, the prince shall be Elisur the son of Sedeur:

11 And the whole army of his fighting men, that were numbered, were forty-six thousand five hundred. 12 Beside him camped they of the tribe of Simeon: whose prince was Salamiel the son of Surisaddai. 13 And the whole army of his fighting men, that were numbered, were fifty-nine thousand three hundred. 14 In the tribe of Gad the prince was Eliasaph the son of Duel. 15 And the whole army of his fighting men that were numbered, were forty-five thousand six hundred and fifty.

16 All that were reckoned up in the camp of Ruben, were a hundred and fifty-one thousand four hundred and fifty, by their troops: they shall march in the second place. 17 And the tabernacle of the testimony shall be carried by the officers of the Levites and their troops. As it shall be set up, so shall it be taken down. Every one shall march according to their places, and ranks. 18 On the west side shall be the camp of the sons of Ephraim, whose prince was Elisama, the son of Ammiud. 19 The whole army of his fighting men, that were numbered, were forty thousand five hundred. 20 And with them the tribe of the sons of Manasses, whose prince was Gamaliel the son of Phadassur.

21 And the whole army of his fighting men, that were numbered, were thirty-two thousand two hundred. 22 In the tribe of the sons of Benjamin the prince was Abidan the son of Gedeon. 23 And the whole army of his fighting men, that were reckoned up, were thirty-five thousand four hundred. 24 All that were numbered in the camp of Ephraim, were a hundred and eight thousand one hundred by their troops: they shall march in the third place. 25 On the north side camped the sons of Dan: whose prince was Ahiezar the son of Ammisaddai.

26 The whole army of his fighting men, that were numbered, were sixty-two thousand seven hundred. 27 Beside him they of the tribe of Aser pitched their tents: whose prince was Phegiel the son of Ochran. 28 The whole army of his fighting men, that were numbered, were forty-one thousand five hundred. 29 Of the tribe of the sons of Nephtali the prince was Ahira the son of Enan. 30 The whole army of his fighting men, were fifty-three thousand four hundred.

31 All that were numbered in the camp of Dan, were a hundred and fifty-seven thousand six hundred: and they shall march last. 32 This is the number of the children of Israel, of their army divided according to the houses of their kindreds and their troops, six hundred and three thousand five hundred and fifty. 33 And the Levites were not numbered among the children of Israel: for so the Lord had commanded Moses. 34 And the children of Israel did according to all things that the Lord had commanded. They camped by their troops, and marched by the families and houses of their fathers.


Chapter 3

The Levites are numbered and their offices distinguished. They are taken in the place of the firstborn of the children of Israel.

1 These are the generations of Aaron and Moses in the day that the Lord spoke to Moses in mount Sinai. 2 And these the names of the sons of Aaron: his firstborn Nadab, then Abiu, and Eleazar, and Ithamar. 3 These the names of the sons of Aaron the priests that were anointed, and whose hands were filled and consecrated, to do the functions of priesthood. 4 Now Nadab and Abiu died, without children, when they offered strange fire before the Lord, in the desert of Sinai: and Eleazar and Ithamar performed the priestly office in the presence of Aaron their father. 5 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:

6 Bring the tribe of Levi, and make them stand in the sight of Aaron the priest to minister to him, and let them watch, 7 And observe whatsoever appertaineth to the service of the multitude before the tabernacle of the testimony, 8 And let them keep the vessels of the tabernacle, serving in the ministry thereof. 9 And thou shalt give the Levites for a gift, 10 To Aaron and to his sons, to whom they are delivered by the children of Israel. But thou shalt appoint Aaron and his sons over the service of priesthood. The stranger that approacheth to minister, shall be put to death.

11 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 12 I have taken the Levites from the children of Israel, for every firstborn that openeth the womb among the children of Israel, and the Levites shall be mine. 13 For every firstborn is mine: since I struck the firstborn in the land of Egypt: I have sanctified to myself whatsoever is firstborn in Israel both of man and beast, they are mine: I am the Lord. 14 And the Lord spoke to Moses in the desert of Sinai, saying: 15 Number the sons of Levi by the houses of their fathers and their families, every male from one month and upward.

16 Moses numbered them as the Lord had commanded. 17 And there were found sons of Levi by their names, Gerson and Caath and Merari. 18 The sons of Gerson: Lebni and Semei. 19 The sons of Caath: Amram, and Jesaar, Hebron and Oziel: 20 The sons of Merari: Moholi and Musi.

21 Of Gerson were two families, the Lebnites, and the Semeites: 22 Of which were numbered, people of the male sex from one month and upward, seven thousand five hundred. 23 These shall pitch behind the tabernacle on the west, 24 Under their prince Eliasaph the son of Lael. 25 And their charge shall be in the tabernacle of the covenant:

26 The tabernacle itself and the cover thereof, the hanging that is drawn before the doors of the tabernacle of the covenant, and the curtains of the court: the hanging also that is hanged in the entry of the court of the tabernacle, and whatsoever belongeth to the rite of the altar, the cords of the tabernacle, and all the furniture thereof. 27 Of the kindred of Caath come the families of the Amramites and Jesaarites and Hebronites and Ozielites. These are the families of the Caathites reckoned up by their names: 28 All of the male sex from one month and upward, eight thousand six hundred: they shall have the guard of the sanctuary, 29 And shall camp on the south side. 30 And their prince shall be Elisaphan the son of Oziel:

31 And they shall keep the ark, and the table and the candlestick, the altars, and the vessels of the sanctuary, wherewith they minister, and the veil, and all the furniture of this kind. 32 And the prince of the princes of the Levites, Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, shall be over them that watch for the guard of the sanctuary. 33 And of Merari are the families of the Moholites, and Musites, reckoned up by their names: 34 All of the male kind from one month and upward, six thousand two hundred. 35 Their prince Suriel the son of Abihaiel: they shall camp on the north side.

36 Under their custody shall be the boards of the tabernacle, and the bars, and the pillars and their sockets, and all things that pertain to this kind of service: 37 And the pillars of the court round about with their sockets, and the pins with their cords. 38 Before the tabernacle of the covenant, that is to say on the east side, shall Moses and Aaron camp, with their sons, having the custody of the sanctuary, in the midst of the children of Israel. What stranger soever cometh unto it, shall be put to death. 39 All the Levites, that Moses and Aaron numbered according to the precept of the Lord, by their families, of the male kind from one month and upward, were twenty-two thousand. 40 And the Lord said to Moses: Number the firstborn of the male sex of the children of Israel, from one month and upward, and thou shalt take the sum of them.

41 And thou shalt take the Levites to me for all the firstborn of the children of Israel, I am the Lord: and their cattle for all the firstborn of the cattle of the children of Israel: 42 Moses reckoned up, as the Lord had commanded, the firstborn of the children of Israel: 43 And the males by their names, from one month and upward, were twenty-two thousand two hundred and seventy-three. 44 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saving: 45 Take the Levites for the firstborn of the children of Israel, and the cattle of the Levites for their cattle, and the Levites shall be mine. I am the Lord.

46 But for the price of the two hundred and seventy-three, of the firstborn of the children of Israel, that exceed the number of the Levites, 47 Thou shalt take five sides for every head, according to the weight of the sanctuary. A sicle hath twenty obols. 48 And then shalt give the money to Aaron and his sons, the price of them that are above. 49 Moses therefore took the money of them that were above, and whom they had redeemed from the Levites, 50 For the firstborn of the children of Israel, one thousand three hundred and sixty-five sicles, according to the weight of the sanctuary,

51 And gave it to Aaron and his sons, according to the word that the Lord had commanded him.


Chapter 4

The age and time of the Levites' service: their offices and burdens.

1 And the Lord spoke to Moses, and Aaron, saying: 2 Take the sum of the sons of Caath from the midst of the Levites, by their houses and families. 3 From thirty years old and upward, to fifty years old, of all that go in to stand and to minister in the tabernacle of the covenant. 4 This is the service of the sons of Caath: 5 When the camp is to set forward, Aaron and his sons shall go into the tabernacle of the covenant, and the holy of holies, and shall take down the veil that hangeth before the door, and shall wrap up the ark of the testimony in it,

6 And shall cover it again with a cover of violet skins, and shall spread over it a cloth all of violet, and shall put in the bars. 7 They shall wrap up also the table of proposition in a cloth of violet, and shall put with it the censers and little mortars, the cups and bowls to pour out the libations: the leaves shall be always on it: 8 And they shall spread over it a cloth of scarlet, which again they shall cover with a covering of violet skins, and shall put in the bars. 9 They shall take also a cloth of violet wherewith they shall cover the candlestick with the lamps and tongs thereof and the snuffers and all the oil vessels, which are necessary for the dressing of the lamps: 10 And over all they shall put a cover of violet skins and put in the bars.

11 And they shall wrap up the golden altar also in a cloth of violet, and shall spread over it a cover of violet skins, and put in the bars. 12 All the vessels wherewith they minister in the sanctuary, they shall wrap up in a cloth of violet, and shall spread over it a cover of violet skins, and put in the bars. 13 They shall cleanse the altar also from the ashes, and shall wrap it up in a purple cloth, 14 And shall put it with all the vessels that they use in the ministry thereof, that is to say, firepans, fleshhooks and forks, pothooks and shovels. They shall cover all the vessels of the altar together with a covering of violet skins, and shall put in the bars. 15 And when Aaron and his sons have wrapped up the sanctuary and the vessels thereof at the removing of the camp, then shall the sons of Caath enter in to carry the things wrapped up: and they shall not touch the vessels of the sanctuary, lest they die. These are the burdens of the sons of Caath: in the tabernacle of the covenant:

16 And over them shall be Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest, to whose charge pertaineth the oil to dress the lamps, and the sweet incense, and the sacrifice, that is always offered, and the oil of unction, and whatsoever pertaineth to the service of the tabernacle, and of all the vessels that are in the sanctuary. 17 And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying: 18 Destroy not the people of Caath from the midst of the Levites: 19 But do this to them, that they may live, and not die, by touching the holies of holies. Aaron and his sons shall go in, and they shall appoint every man his work, and shall divide the burdens that every man is to carry. 20 Let not others by any curiosity see the things that are in the sanctuary before they be wrapped up, otherwise they shall die.

21 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 22 Take the sum of the soils of Gerson also by their houses and families and kindreds. 23 From thirty years old and upward, unto fifty years old. Number them all that go in and minister in the tabernacle of the covenant. 24 This is the office of the family of the Gersonites: 25 To carry the curtains of the tabernacle and the roof of the covenant, the other covering, and the violet covering over all, and the hanging that hangeth in the entry of the tabernacle of the covenant,

26 The curtains of the court, and the veil in the entry that is before the tabernacle. All things that pertain to the altar, the cords and the vessels of the ministry, 27 The sons of Gerson shall carry, by the commandment of Aaron and his sons: and each man shall know to what burden he must be assigned. 28 This is the service of the family of the Gersonites in the tabernacle of the covenant, and they shall be under the hand of Ithamar the son of Aaron the priest. 29 Thou shalt reckon up the sons of Merari also by the families and houses of their fathers, 30 From thirty years old and upward, unto fifty years old, all that go in to the office of their ministry, and to the service of the covenant of the testimony.

31 These are their burdens: They shall carry the boards of the tabernacle and the bars thereof, the pillars and their sockets, 32 The pillars also of the court round about, with their sockets and pins and cords. They shall receive by account all the vessels and furniture, and so shall carry them. 33 This is the office of the family of the Merarites, and their ministry in the tabernacle of the covenant: and they shall be under the hand of Ithamar the son of Aaron the priest. 34 So Moses and Aaron and the princes of the synagogue reckoned up the sons of Caath, by their kindreds and the houses of their fathers, 35 From thirty years old and upward, unto fifty years old, all that go in to the ministry of the tabernacle of the covenant:

36 And they were found two thousand seven hundred and fifty. 37 This is the number of the people of Caath that go in to the tabernacle of the covenant: these did Moses and Aaron number according to the word of the Lord by the hand of Moses. 38 The sons of Gerson also were numbered by the kindreds and houses of their fathers, 39 From thirty years old and upward, unto fifty years old, all that go in to minister in the tabernacle of the covenant: 40 And they were found two thousand six hundred and thirty.

41 This is the people of the Gersonites, whom Moses and Aaron numbered according to the word of the Lord. 42 The sons of Merari also were numbered by the kindreds and houses of their fathers, 43 From thirty years old and upward, unto fifty years old, all that go in to fulfill the rites of the tabernacle of the covenant: 44 And they were found three thousand two hundred. 45 This is the number of the sons of Merari, whom Moses and Aaron reckoned up according to the commandment of the Lord by the hand of Moses.

46 All that were reckoned up of the Levites, and whom Moses and Aaron and the princes of Israel took by name, by the kindreds and houses of their fathers, 47 From thirty years old and upward, until fifty years old, that go into the ministry of the tabernacle, and to carry the burdens, 48 Were in all eight thousand five hundred and eighty. 49 Moses reckoned them up according to the word of the Lord, every one according to their office and burdens, as the Lord had commanded him.


Chapter 5

The unclean are removed out of the camp: confession of sins, and satisfaction: firstfruits and oblations belonging to the priests: trial of jealousy.

1 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 2 Command the children of Israel, that they cast out of the camp every leper, and whosoever hath an issue of seed, or is defiled by the dead: 3 Whether it be man or woman, cast ye them out of the camp, lest they defile it when I shall dwell with you. 4 And the children of Israel did so, and they cast them forth without the camp, as the Lord had spoken to Moses. 5 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:

6 Say to the children of Israel: When a man or woman shall have committed any of all the sins that men are wont to commit, and by negligence shall have transgressed the commandment of the Lord, and offended, 7 They shall confess their sin, and restore the principal itself, and the fifth part over and above, to him against whom they have sinned. 8 But if there be no one to receive it, they shall give it to the Lord, and it shall be the priest's, besides the ram that is offered for expiation, to be an atoning sacrifice. 9 All the firstfruits also, which the children of Israel offer, belong to the priest: 10 And whatsoever is offered into the sanctuary by every one, and is delivered into the hands of the priest, it shall be his.

7 "Shall confess"... This confession and satisfaction, ordained in the Old Law, was a figure of the sacrament of penance.

11 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 12 Speak to the children of Israel, and thou shalt say to them: The man whose wife shall have gone astray, and contemning her husband, 13 Shall have slept with another man, and her husband cannot discover it, but the adultery is secret, and cannot be proved by witnesses, because she was not found in the adultery: 14 If the spirit of jealousy stir up the husband against his wife, who either is defiled, or is charged with false suspicion, 15 He shall bring her to the priest, and shall offer an oblation for her, the tenth part of a measure of barley meal: he shall not pour oil thereon, nor put frankincense upon it: because it is a sacrifice of jealousy, and an oblation searching out adultery.

14 "The spirit of jealousy"... This ordinance was designed to clear the innocent, and to prevent jealous husbands from doing mischief to their wives: as likewise to give all a horror of adultery, by punishing it in so remarkable a manner.

16 The priest therefore shall offer it, and set it before the Lord. 17 And he shall take holy water in an earthen vessel, and he shall cast a little earth of the pavement of the tabernacle into it. 18 And when the woman shall stand before the Lord, he shall uncover her head, and shall, put on her hands the sacrifice of remembrance, and the oblation of jealousy: and he himself shall hold the most bitter waters, whereon he hath heaped curses with execration. 19 And he shall adjure her, and shall say: If another man hath not slept with thee, and if thou be not defiled by forsaking thy husband's bed, these most bitter waters, on which I have heaped curses, shall not hurt thee. 20 But if thou hast gone aside from thy husband, and art defiled, and hast lain with another man:

21 These curses shall light upon thee: The Lord make thee a curse, and an example for all among his people: may he make thy thigh to rot, and may thy belly swell and burst asunder. 22 Let the cursed waters enter into thy belly, and may thy womb swell and thy thigh rot. And the woman shall answer, Amen, amen. 23 And the priest shall write these curses in a book, and shall wash them out with the most bitter waters, upon which he hath heaped the curses, 24 And he shall give them her to drink. And when she hath drunk them up, 25 The priest shall take from her hand the sacrifice of jealousy, and shall elevate it before the Lord, and shall put it upon the altar: yet so as first,

26 To take a handful of the sacrifice of that which is offered, and burn it upon the altar: and so give the most bitter waters to the woman to drink. 27 And when she hath drunk them, if she be defiled, and having despised her husband be guilty of adultery, the malediction shall go through her, and her belly swelling, her thigh shall rot: and the woman shall be a curse, and an example to all the people. 28 But if she be not defiled, she shall not be hurt, and shall bear children. 29 This is the law of jealousy. If a woman hath gone aside from her husband, and be defiled, 30 And the husband stirred up by the spirit of jealousy bring her before the Lord, and the priest do to her according to all things that are here written:

31 The husband shall be blameless, and she shall bear her iniquity.


Chapter 6

The law of the Nazarites: the form of blessing the people.

1 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 2 Speak to the children of Israel, and thou shalt say to them: When a man, or woman, shall make a vow to be sanctified, and will consecrate themselves to the Lord: 3 They shall abstain from wine, and from every thing that may make a man drunk. They shall not drink vinegar of wine, or of any other drink, nor any thing that is pressed out of the grape: nor shall they eat grapes either fresh or dried. 4 All the days that they are consecrated to the Lord by vow: they shall eat nothing that cometh of the vineyard, from the raisin even to the kernel. 5 All the time of his separation no razor shall pass over his head, until the day be fulfilled of his consecration to the Lord. He shall be holy, and shall let the hair of his head grow.

6 All the time of his consecration he shall not go in to any dead, 7 Neither shall he make himself unclean, even for his father, or for his mother, or for his brother, or for his sister, when they die, because the consecration of his God is upon his head. 8 All the days of his separation he shall be holy to the Lord. 9 But if any man die suddenly before him: the head of his consecration shall be defiled: and he shall shave it forthwith on the same day of his purification, and again on the seventh day. 10 And on the eighth day he shall bring two turtles, or two young pigeons to the priest in the entry of the covenant of the testimony.

11 And the priest shall offer one for sin, and the other for a holocaust, and shall pray for him, for that he hath sinned by the dead: and he shall sanctify his head that day: 12 And shall consecrate to the Lord the days of his separation, offering a lamb of one year for sin: yet so that the former days be made void, because his sanctification was profaned. 13 This is the law of consecration. When the days which he had determined by vow shall be expired, he shall bring him to the door of the tabernacle of the covenant, 14 And shall offer his oblation to the Lord: one he lamb of a year old without blemish for a holocaust, and one awe lamb of a year old without blemish for a sin offering, and one ram without blemish for a victim of peace offering, 15 A basket also of unleavened bread, tempered with oil, and wafers without leaven anointed with oil, and the libations of each:

16 And the priest shall present them before the Lord, and shall offer both the sin offering and the holocaust. 17 But the ram he shall immolate for a sacrifice of peace offering to the Lord, offering at the same time the basket of unleavened bread, and the libations that are due by custom. 18 Then shall the hair of the consecration of the Nazarite, be shaved off before the door of the tabernacle of the covenant: and he shall take his hair, and lay it upon the fire, which is under the sacrifice of the peace offerings. 19 And shall take the boiled shoulder of the ram, and one unleavened cake out of the basket, and one unleavened wafer, and he shall deliver them into the hands of the Nazarite, after his head is shaven. 20 And receiving them again from him, he shall elevate them in the sight of the Lord: and they being sanctified shall belong to the priest, as the breast, which was commanded to be separated, and the shoulder. After this the Nazarite may drink wine.

21 This is the law of the Nazarite, when he hath vowed his oblation to the Lord in the time of his consecration, besides those things which his hand shall find, according to that which he had vowed in his mind, so shall he do for the fulfilling of his sanctification. 22 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 23 Say to Aaron and his sons: Thus shall you bless the children of Israel, and you shall say to them: 24 The Lord bless thee, and keep thee. 25 The Lord shew his face to thee, and have mercy on thee.

26 The Lord turn his countenance to thee, and give thee peace. 27 And they shall invoke my name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them.


Chapter 7

The offerings of the princes at the dedication of the tabernacle. God speaketh to Moses from the propitiatory.

1 And it came to pass in the day that Moses had finished the tabernacle, and set it up, and had anointed and sanctified it with all its vessels, the altar likewise and all the vessels thereof, 2 The princes of Israel and the heads of the families, in every tribe, who were the rulers of them who had been numbered, offered 3 Their gifts before the Lord, six wagons covered, and twelve oxen. Two princes offered one wagon, and each one an ox, and they offered them before the tabernacle. 4 And the Lord said to Moses: 5 Receive them from them to serve in the ministry of the tabernacle, and thou shalt deliver them to the Levites according to the order of their ministry.

6 Moses therefore receiving the wagons and the oxen, delivered them to the Levites. 7 Two wagons and four oxen he gave to the sons of Gerson, according to their necessity. 8 The other four wagons, and eight oxen he gave to the sons of Merari, according to their offices and service, under the hand of Ithamar the son of Aaron the priest. 9 But to the sons of Caath he gave no wagons or oxen: because they serve in the sanctuary and carry their burdens upon their own shoulders. 10 And the princes offered for the dedication of the altar on the day when it was anointed, their oblation before the altar.

11 And the Lord said to Moses: Let each of the princes one day after another offer their gifts for the dedication of the altar. 12 The first day Nahasson the son of Aminadab of the tribe of Juda offered his offering: 13 And his offering was a silver dish weighing one hundred and thirty sicles, a silver bowl of seventy sicles according to the weight of the sanctuary, both full of flour tempered with oil for a sacrifice: 14 A little mortar of ten sides of gold full of incense: 15 An ox of the herd, and a ram, and a lamb of a year old for a holocaust:

16 And a buck goat for sin: 17 And for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five he goats, five lambs of a year old. This was the offering of Nahasson the son of Aminadab. 18 The second day Nathanael the son of Suar, prince of the tribe of Issachar, made his offering, 19 A silver dish weighing one hundred and thirty sides, a silver bowl of seventy sides, according to the weight of the sanctuary, both full of flour tempered with oil for a sacrifice: 20 A little mortar of gold weighing ten sides full of incense:

21 An ox of the herd, and a ram, and a lamb of a year old for a holocaust: 22 And a buck goat for sin: 23 And for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five buck goats, five lambs of a year old. This was the offering of Nathanael the son of Suar. 24 The third day the prince of the sons of Zabulon, Eliab the son of Helon, 25 Offered a silver dish weighing one hundred and thirty sides, a silver bowl of seventy sides by the weight of the sanctuary, both full of flour tempered with oil for a sacrifice:

26 A little mortar of gold weighing ten sides full of incense: 27 An ox of the herd, and a ram, and a lamb of a year old for a holocaust: 28 And a buck goat for sin: 29 And for the sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five buck goats, five lambs of a year old. This is the oblation of Eliab the son of Helon. 30 The fourth day the prince of the sons of Ruben, Elisur the son of Sedeur,

31 Offered a silver dish weighing one hundred and thirty sides, a silver bowl of seventy sides according to the weight of the sanctuary, both full of flour tempered with oil for a sacrifice: 32 A little mortar of gold weighing ten sides full of incense: 33 An ox of the herd, and a ram, and a lamb of a year old, for a holocaust: 34 And a buck goat for sin: 35 And for victims of peace offerings two oxen, five rams, five buck goats. five lambs of a year old. This was the offering of Elisur the son of Sedeur.

36 The fifth day the prince of the sons of Simeon, Salamiel the son of Surisaddai, 37 Offered a silver dish weighing one hundred and thirty sides, a silver bowl of seventy sides after the weight of the sanctuary, both full of flour tempered with oil for a sacrifice: 38 A little mortar of gold weighing ten sides full of incense: 39 An ox of the herd, and a ram, and a lamb of a year old for a holocaust: 40 And a buck goat for sin:

41 And for sacrifices of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five buck goats, five lambs of a year old. This was the offering of Salamiel the son of Surisaddai. 42 The sixth day the prince of the sons of Gad, Eliasaph the son of Duel, 43 Offered a silver dish weighing a hundred and thirty sides, a silver bowl of seventy sides by the weight of the sanctuary, both full of flour tempered with oil for a sacrifice: 44 A little mortar of gold weighing ten sides full of incense: 45 An ox of the herd, and a ram, and a lamb of a year old for a holocaust:

46 And a buck goat for sin: 47 And for sacrifices of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five buck goats, five lambs of a year old. This was the offering of Eliasaph the son of Duel. 48 The seventh day the prince of the sons of Ephraim, Elisama the son Ammiud, 49 Offered a silver dish weighing a hundred and thirty sides, a silver bowl of seventy sides according to the weight of the sanctuary, both full of hour tempered with oil for a sacrifice: 50 A little mortar of gold weighing ten sides full of incense:

51 An ox of the herd, and a ram, and a lamb of a year old for a holocaust: 52 And a buck goat for sin: 53 And for sacrifices of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five buck goats, five lambs of a year old. This was the offering of Elisama the son of Ammiud. 54 The eighth day the prince of the sons of Manasses, Gamaliel the son of Phadassur, 55 Offered a silver dish weighing a hundred and thirty sicles, a silver bowl of seventy sicles, according to the weight of the sanctuary, both full of flour tempered with oil for a sacrifice:

56 A little mortar of gold weighing ten sicles full of incense: 57 An ox of the herd, and a ram, and a lamb of a year old for a holocaust: 58 And a buck goat for sin: 59 And for sacrifices of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five buck goats, five lambs of a year old. This was the offering of Gamaliel the son of Phadassur. 60 The ninth day the prince of the sons of Benjamin, Abidan the son of Gedeon,

61 Offered a silver dish weighing a hundred and thirty sides, a silver bowl of seventy sides by the weight of the sanctuary, both full of flour tempered with oil for a sacrifice: 62 A little mortar of gold weighing ten sides full of incense: 63 An ox of the herd, and a ram, and a lamb of a year old for a, holocaust: 64 And a buck goat for sin: 65 And for sacrifices of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five buck goats, five lambs of a year old. This was the offering of Abidan the son of Gedeon.

66 The tenth day the prince of the sons of Dan, Ahiezer the son of Ammisaddai, 67 Offered a silver dish weighing a hundred and thirty sides, a silver bowl of seventy sides, according to the weight of the sanctuary, both full of flour tempered with oil for a sacrifice: 68 A little mortar of gold weighing ten sides full of incense: 69 An ox of the herd, and a ram, and a lamb of a year old for a holocaust: 70 And a buck goat for sin:

71 And for sacrifices of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five buck goats, five lambs of a year old. This was the offering of Ahiezer the son of Ammisaddai. 72 The eleventh day the prince of the sons of Aser, Phegiel the son of Ochran, 73 Offered a silver dish weighing a hundred and thirty sides, a silver bowl of seventy sides, according to the weight of the sanctuary, both full of flour tempered with oil for a sacrifice: 74 A little mortar of gold weighing ten sides full of incense: 75 An ox of the herd, and a ram, and a lamb of a year old for a holocaust:

76 And a buck goat for sin: 77 And for sacrifices of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five buck goats, five lambs of a year old. This was the offering of Phegiel the son of Ochran. 78 The twelfth day the prince of the sons of Nephtali, Ahira the son of Enan, 79 Offered a silver dish weighing a hundred and thirty sides, a silver bowl of seventy sides, according to the weight of the sanctuary, both full of flour tempered with oil for a sacrifice: 80 A little mortar of gold weighing ten sides full of incense:

81 An ox of the herd, and a ram, and a lamb of a year old for a holocaust: 82 And a buck goat for sin: 83 And for sacrifices of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five buck goats, five lambs of a year old. This was the offering of Ahira the son of Enan. 84 These were the offerings made by the princes of Israel in the dedication of the altar, in the day wherein it was consecrated. Twelve dishes of silver: twelve silver bowls: twelve little mortars of gold: 85 Each dish weighing a hundred and thirty sides of silver, and each bowl seventy sides: that is, putting all the vessels of silver together, two thousand four hundred sides, by the weight of the sanctuary.

86 Twelve little mortars of gold full of incense, weighing ten sides apiece, by the weight of the sanctuary: that is, in all a hundred and twenty sides of gold. 87 Twelve oxen out of the herd for a holocaust, twelve rams, twelve lambs of a year old, and their libations: twelve buck goats for sin. 88 And for sacrifices of peace offerings, oxen twenty-four, rams sixty, buck goats sixty, lambs of a year old sixty. These things were offered in the dedication of the altar, when it was anointed. 89 And when Moses entered into the tabernacle of the covenant, to consult the oracle, he heard the voice of one speaking to him from the propitiatory, that was over the ark between the two cherubims, and from this place he spoke to him.


Chapter 8

The seven lamps are placed on the golden candlestick, to shine towards the loaves of proposition: the ordination of the Levites: and to what age they shall serve in the tabernacle.

1 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 2 Speak to Aaron, and thou shalt say to him: When thou shalt place the seven lamps, let the candlestick be set up on the south side. Give orders therefore that the lamps look over against the north, towards the table of the leaves of proposition, over against that part shall they give light, towards which the candlestick looketh. 3 And Aaron did so, and he put the lamps upon the candlestick, as the Lord had commanded Moses. 4 Now this was the work of the candlestick, it was of beaten gold, both the shaft in the middle, and all that came out of both sides of the branches: according to the pattern which the Lord had shewn to Moses, so he made the candlestick. 5 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:

6 Take the Levites out of the midst of the children of Israel, and thou shalt purify them, 7 According to this rite: Let them be sprinkled with the water of purification, and let them shave all the hairs of their flesh. And when they shall have washed their garments, and are cleansed, 8 They shall take an ox of the herd, and for the offering thereof fine flour tempered with oil: and thou shalt take another ox of the herd for a sin offering: 9 And thou shalt bring the Levites before the tabernacle of the covenant, calling together all the multitude of the children of Israel: 10 And when the Levites are before the Lord, the children of Israel shall put their hands upon them:

7 "Let them be sprinkled with the water of purification"... This was the holy water mixed with the ashes of the red cow, Num. 19., appointed for purifying all that were unclean. It was a figure of the blood of Christ, applied to our souls by his holy sacraments.

11 And Aaron shall offer the Levites, as a gift in the sight of the Lord from the children of Israel, that they may serve in his ministry. 12 The Levites also shall put their hands upon the heads of the oxen, of which thou shalt sacrifice one for sin, and the other for a holocaust to the Lord, to pray for them. 13 And thou shalt set the Levites in the sight of Aaron and of his sons, and shalt consecrate them being offered to the Lord, 14 And shalt separate them from the midst of the children of Israel, to be mine. 15 And afterwards they shall enter into the tabernacle of the covenant, to serve me. And thus shalt thou purify and consecrate them for an oblation of the Lord: for as a gift they were given me by the children of Israel.

16 I have taken them instead of the firstborn that open every womb in Israel, 17 For all the firstborn of the children of Israel, both of men and of beasts, are mine. From the day that I slew every firstborn in the land of Egypt, have I sanctified them to myself: 18 And I have taken the Levites for all the firstborn of the children of Israel: 19 And have delivered them for a gift to Aaron and his sons out of the midst of the people, to serve me for Israel in the tabernacle of the covenant, and to pray for them, lest there should be a plague among the people, if they should presume to approach unto my sanctuary. 20 And Moses and Aaron and all the multitude of the children of Israel did with the Levites all that the Lord had commanded Moses:

21 And they were purified, and washed their garments. And Aaron lifted them up in the sight of the Lord, and prayed for them, 22 That being purified they might go into the tabernacle of the covenant to do their services before Aaron and his sons. As the Lord had commanded Moses touching the Levites, so was it done. 23 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 24 This is the law of the Levites: From twenty-five years old and upwards, they shall go in to minister in the tabernacle of the covenant. 25 And when they shall have accomplished the fiftieth year of their age, they shall cease to serve:

26 And they shall be the ministers of their brethren in the tabernacle of the covenant, to keep the things that are committed to their care, but not to do the works. Thus shalt thou order the Levites touching their charge.


Chapter 9

The precept of the pasch is renewed: the unclean and travellers are to observe it the second month: the camp is guided by the pillar of the cloud.

1 The Lord spoke to Moses in the desert of Sinai, the second year after they were come out of the land of Egypt, in the first month, saying: 2 Let the children of Israel make the phase in its due time, 3 The fourteenth day of this month in the evening, according to all the ceremonies and justifications thereof. 4 And Moses commanded the children of Israel that they should make the phase. 5 And they made it in its proper time: the fourteenth day of the month at evening, in mount Sinai. The children of Israel did according to all things that the Lord had commanded Moses.

2 "Make the phase"... That is, keep the paschal solemnity, and eat the paschal lamb.

6 But behold some who were unclean by occasion of the soul of a man, who could not make the phase on that day, coming to Moses and Aaron, 7 Said to them: We are unclean by occasion of the soul of a man. Why are we kept back that we may not offer in its season the offering to the Lord among the children of Israel? 8 And Moses answered them: Stay that I may consult the Lord what he will ordain concerning you. 9 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 10 Say to the children of Israel: The man that shall be unclean by occasion of one that is dead, or shall be in a journey afar off in your nation, let him make the phase to the Lord.

6 "Behold some who were unclean by occasion of the soul of a man"... That is, by having touched or come near a dead body, out of which the soul was departed.

11 In the second month, on the fourteenth day of the month in the evening, they shall eat it with unleavened bread and wild lettuce: 12 They shall not leave any thing thereof until morning, a nor break a bone thereof, they shall observe all the ceremonies of the phase. 13 But if any man is clean, and was not on a journey, and did not make the phase, that soul shall be cut off from among his people, because he offered not sacrifice to the Lord in due season: he shall bear his sin. 14 The sojourner also and the stranger if they be among you, shall make the phase to the Lord according to the ceremonies and justifications thereof. The same ordinance shall be with you both for the stranger, and for him that was born in the land. 15 Now on the day that the tabernacle was reared up, a cloud covered it. But from the evening there was over the tabernacle, as it were, the appearance of fire until the morning.

16 So it was always: by day the cloud covered it, and by night as it were the appearance of fire. 17 And when the cloud that covered the tabernacle was taken up, then the children of Israel marched forward: and in the place where the cloud stood still, there they camped. 18 At the commandment of the Lord they marched, and at his commandment they pitched the tabernacle. All the days that the cloud abode over the tabernacle, they remained in the same place: 19 And if it was so that it continued over it a long time, the children of Israel kept the watches of the Lord, and marched not, 20 For as many days soever as the cloud stayed over the tabernacle. At the commandment of the Lord they pitched their tents, and at his commandment they took them down.

21 If the cloud tarried from evening until morning, and immediately at break of day left the tabernacle, they marched forward: and if it departed after a day and a night, they took down their tents. 22 But if it remained over the tabernacle for two days or a month or a longer time, the children of Israel remained in the same place, and marched not: but immediately as soon as it departed, they removed the camp. 23 By the word of the Lord they pitched their tents, and by his word they marched: and kept the watches of the Lord according to his commandment by the hand of Moses.


Chapter 10

The silver trumpets and their use. They march from Sinai.

1 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 2 Make thee two trumpets of beaten silver, wherewith thou mayest call together the multitude when the camp is to be removed. 3 And when thou shalt sound the trumpets, all the multitude shall gather unto thee to the door of the tabernacle of the covenant. 4 If thou sound but once, the princes and the heads of the multitude of Israel shall come to thee. 5 But if the sound of the trumpets be longer, and with interruptions, they that are on the east side, shall first go forward.

6 And at the second sounding and like noise of the trumpet, they who lie on the south side shall take up their tents. And after this manner shall the rest do, when the trumpets shall sound for a march. 7 But when the people is to be gathered together, the sound of the trumpets shall be plain, and they shall not make a broken sound. 8 And the sons of Aaron the priest shall sound the trumpets: and this shall be an ordinance for ever in your generations. 9 If you go forth to war out of your land against the enemies that fight against you, you shall sound aloud with the trumpets, and there shall be a remembrance of you before the Lord your God, that you may be delivered out of the hands of your enemies. 10 If at any time you shall have a banquet, and on your festival days, and on the first days of your months, you shall sound the trumpets over the holocausts, and the sacrifices of peace offerings, that they may be to you for a remembrance of your God. I am the Lord your God.

11 The second year, in the second month, the twentieth day of the month, the cloud was taken up from the tabernacle of the covenant. 12 And the children of Israel marched by their troops from the desert of Sinai, and the cloud rested in the wilderness of Pharan. 13 And the first went forward according to the commandment of the Lord by the hand of Moses. 14 The sons of Juda by their troops: whose prince was Nahasson the son of Aminadab. 15 In the tribe of the sons of Issachar, the prince was Nathanael the son of Suar.

16 In the tribe of Zabulon, the prince was Eliab the son of Helon. 17 And the tabernacle was taken down, and the sons of Gerson and Merari set forward, bearing it. 18 And the sons of Ruben also marched, by their troops and ranks, whose prince was Helisur the son of Sedeur. 19 And in the tribe of Simeon, the prince was Salamiel the son of Surisaddai. 20 And in the tribe of Cad, the prince was Eliasaph the son of Duel.

21 Then the Caathites also marched carrying the sanctuary. So long was the tabernacle carried, till they came to the place of setting it up. 22 The sons of Ephraim also moved their camp by their troops, in whose army the prince was Elisama the son of Ammiud. 23 And in the tribe of the sons of Manasses, the prince was Gamaliel the son of Phadassur. 24 And in the tribe of Benjamin, the prince was Abidan the son of Gedeon. 25 The last of all the camp marched the sons of Dan by their troops, in whose army the prince was Ahiezer the son of Ammisaddai.

26 And in the tribe of the sons of Aser, the prince was Phegiel the son of Ochran. 27 And in the tribe of the sons of Nephtali, the prince was Ahira the son of Enan. 28 This was the order of the camps, and marches of the children of Israel by their troops, when they set forward. 29 And Moses said to Hobab the son of Raguel the Madianite, his kinsman: We are going towards the place which the Lord will give us: come with us, that we may do thee good: for the Lord hath promised good things to Israel. 30 But he answered him: I will not go with thee, but I will return to my country, wherein I was born.

31 And he said: Do not leave us: for thou knowest in what places we should encamp in the wilderness, and thou shalt be our guide. 32 And if thou comest with us, we will give thee what is the best of the riches which the Lord shall deliver to us. 33 So they marched from the mount of the Lord three days' journey, and the ark of the covenant of the Lord went before them, for three days providing a place for the camp. 34 The cloud also of the Lord was over them by day when they marched. 35 And when the ark was lifted up, Moses said: Arise, O Lord, and let thy enemies be scattered, and let them that hate thee, flee from before thy face.

36 And when it was set down, he said: Return, O Lord, to the multitude of the host of Israel.


Chapter 11

The people murmur and are punished with fire. God appointeth seventy ancients for assistants to Moses. They prophesy. The people have their fill of flesh, but forthwith many die of the plague.

1 In the mean time there arose a murmuring of the people against the Lord, as it were repining at their fatigue. And when the Lord heard it he was angry. And the fire of the Lord being kindled against them, devoured them that were at the uttermost part of the camp. 2 And when the people cried to Moses, Moses prayed to the Lord, and the fire was swallowed up. 3 And he called the name of that place, The burning: for that the fire of the Lord had been kindled against them. 4 For a mixt multitude of people, that came up with them, burned with desire, sitting and weeping, the children of Israel also being joined with them, and said: Who shall give us flesh to eat? 5 We remember the Ash that we ate in Egypt free cost: the cucumbers come into our mind, and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the garlic.

3 "The burning"... Hebrew, Taberah.

4 "A mixt multitude"... These were people that came with them out of Egypt, who were not of the race of Israel; who, by their murmuring, drew also the children of Israel to murmur: this should teach us the danger of associating ourselves with the children of Egypt, that is, with the lovers and admirers of this wicked world.

6 Our soul is dry, our eyes behold nothing else but manna. 7 A Now the manna was like coriander seed, of the colour of bdellium. 8 And the people went about, and gathering it, ground it in a mill, or beat it in a mortar, and boiled it in a pot, and made cakes thereof of the taste of bread tempered with oil. 9 And when the dew fell in the night upon the camp, the manna also fell with it. 10 Now Moses heard the people weeping by their families, every one at the door of his tent. And the wrath of the Lord was exceedingly enkindled: to Moses also the thing seemed insupportable.

7 "Bdellium"... Bdellium, according to Pliny, 1. 21, c. 9. was of the colour of a man's nail, white and bright.

11 And he said to the Lord: Why hast thou afflicted thy servant? wherefore do I not find favour before thee? and why hast thou laid the weight of all this people upon me? 12 Have I conceived all this multitude, or begotten them, that thou shouldst say to me: Carry them in thy bosom as the nurse is wont to carry the little infant, and bear them into the land, for which thou hast sworn to their fathers? 13 Whence should I have flesh to give to so great a multitude? they weep against me, saying: Give us flesh that we may eat. 14 I am not able alone to bear all this people, because it is too heavy for me. 15 But if it seem unto thee otherwise, I beseech thee to kill me, and let me find grace in thy eyes, that I be not afflicted with so great evils.

16 And the Lord said to Moses: Gather unto me seventy men of the ancients of Israel, whom thou knowest to be ancients and masters of the people: and thou shalt bring them to the door of the tabernacle of the covenant, and shalt make them stand there with thee, 17 That I may come down and speak with thee: and I will take of thy spirit, and will give to them, that they may bear with thee the burden of the people, and thou mayest not be burthened alone. 18 And thou shalt say to the people: Be ye sanctified: tomorrow you shall eat flesh: for I have heard you say: Who will give us flesh to eat? it was well with us in Egypt. That the Lord may give you flesh, and you may eat: 19 Not for one day, nor two, nor five, nor ten, no nor for twenty. 20 But even for a month of days, till it come out at your nostrils, and become loathsome to you, because you have cast off the Lord, who is in the midst of you, and have wept before him, saying: Why came we out of Egypt?

16 "Seventy men"... This was the first institution of the council or senate, called the Sanhedrin, consisting of seventy or seventy-two senators or counsellors.

21 And Moses said: There are six hundred thousand footmen of this people, and sayest thou: I will give them flesh to eat a whole month? 22 Shall then a multitude of sheep and oxen be killed, that it may suffice for their food? or shall the fishes of the sea be gathered together to fill them? 23 And the Lord answered him: Is the hand of the Lord unable? Thou shalt presently see whether my word shall come to pass or no. 24 Moses therefore came, and told the people the words of the Lord, and assembled seventy men of the ancients of Israel, and made them to stand about the tabernacle. 25 And the Lord came down in a cloud, and spoke to him, taking away of the spirit that was in Moses, and giving to the seventy men. And when the spirit had rested on them they prophesied, nor did they cease afterwards.

26 Now there remained in the camp two of the men, of whom one was called Eldad, and the other Medad, upon whom the spirit rested; for they also had been enrolled, but were not gone forth to the tabernacle. 27 And when they prophesied in the camp, there ran a young man, and told Moses, saying: Eldad and Medad prophesy in the camp. 28 Forthwith Josue the son of Nun, the minister of Moses, and chosen out of many, said: My lord Moses forbid them. 29 But he said: Why hast thou emulation for me? O that all the people might prophesy, and that the Lord would give them his spirit! 30 And Moses returned, with the ancients of Israel, into the camp.

31 And a wind going out from the Lord, taking quails up beyond the sea brought them, and cast them into the camp for the space of one day's journey, on every side of the camp round about, and they flew in the air two cubits high above the ground. 32 The people therefore rising up all that day, and night, and the next day, gathered together of quails, he that did least, ten cores: and they dried them round about the camp. 33 As yet the flesh was between their teeth, neither had that kind of meat failed: when behold the wrath of the Lord being provoked against the people, struck them with an exceeding great plague. 34 And that place was called, The graves of lust: for there they buried the people that had lusted. And departing from the graves of lust, they came unto Haseroth, and abode there.

34 "The graves of lust"... Or, the sepulchres of concupiscence: so called from their irregular desire of flesh. In Hebrew, Kibroth. Hattaavah.


Chapter 12

Mary and Aaron murmur against Moses, whom God praiseth above other prophets. Mary being struck with leprosy, Aaron confesseth his fault. Moses prayeth for her, and after seven days' separation from the camp, she is restored.

1 And Mary and Aaron spoke against Moses, because of his wife the Ethiopian, 2 And they said: Hath the Lord spoken by Moses only? hath he not also spoken to us in like manner? And when the Lord heard this, 3 (For Moses was a man exceeding meek above all men that dwelt upon earth) 4 Immediately he spoke to him, and to Aaron and Mary: Come out you three only to the tabernacle of the covenant. And when they were come out, 5 The Lord came down in a pillar of the cloud, and stood in the entry of the tabernacle calling to Aaron and Mary. And when they were come,

1 "Ethiopian"... Sephora the wife of Moses was of Madian, which bordered upon the land of Chus or Ethiopia: where note, that the Ethiopia here spoken of is not that of Africa but that of Arabia.

3 "Exceeding meek"... Moses being the meekest of men, would not contend for himself; therefore, God inspired him to write here his own defence: and the Holy Spirit, whose dictate he wrote, obliged him to declare the truth, though it was so much to his own praise.

6 He said to them: Hear my words: if there be among you a prophet of the Lord, I will appear to him in a vision, or I will speak to him in a dream. 7 But it is not so with my servant Moses a who is most faithful in all my house: 8 For I speak to him mouth to mouth: and plainly, and not by riddles and figures doth he see the Lord. Why then were you not afraid to speak ill of my servant Moses? 9 And being angry with them he went away: 10 The cloud also that was over the tabernacle departed: and behold Mary appeared white as snow with a leprosy. And when Aaron had looked on her, and saw her all covered with leprosy,

11 He said to Moses: I beseech thee, my lord, lay not upon us this sin, which we have foolishly committed: 12 Let her not be as one dead, and as an abortive that is cast forth from the mother's womb. Lo, now one half of her flesh is consumed with the leprosy. 13 And Moses cried to the Lord, saying: O God, I beseech thee heal her. 14 And the Lord answered him: If her father had spitten upon her face, ought she not to have been ashamed for seven days at least? Let her be separated seven days without the camp, and after wards she shall be called again. 15 Mary therefore was put out of the camp seven days: and the people moved not from that place until Mary was called again.


Chapter 13

The twelve spies are sent to view the land. The relation they make of it.

1 And the people marched from Haseroth, and pitched their tents in the desert of Pharan. 2 And there the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 3 Send men to view the land of Chanaan, which I will give to the children of Israel, one of every tribe, of the rulers. 4 Moses did what the Lord had commanded, sending from the desert of Pharan, principal men, whose names are these: 5 Of the tribe of Ruben, Sammua the son of Zechur.

6 Of the tribe of Simeon, Saphat the son of Hurl. 7 Of the tribe of Juda, Caleb the son of Jephone. 8 Of the tribe of Issachar, Igal the son of Joseph. 9 Of the tribe of Ephraim, Osee the son of Nun. 10 Of the tribe of Benjamin, Phalti the son of Raphu.

11 Of the tribe of Zabulon, Geddiel the son of Sodi. 12 Of the tribe of Joseph, of the sceptre of Manasses, Gaddi the son of Susi. 13 Of the tribe of Dan, Ammiel the son of Gemalli. 14 Of the tribe of Aser, Sthur the son of Michael. 15 Of the tribe of Nephtali, Nahabi the son of Vapsi.

16 Of the tribe of Gad, Guel the son of Machi. 17 These are the names of the men, whom Moses sent to view the land: and he called Osee the son of Nun, Josue. 18 And Moses sent them to view the land of Chanaan, and said to them: Go you up by the south side. And when you shall come to the mountains, 19 View the land, of what sort it is: and the people that are the inhabitants thereof, whether they be strong or weak: few in number or many: 20 The land itself, whether it be good or bad: what manner of cities, walled or without walls:

21 The ground, fat or barren, woody or without trees. Be of good courage, and bring us of the fruits of the land. Now it was the time when the first ripe grapes are fit to be eaten. 22 And when they were gone up, they viewed the land from the desert of Sin, unto Rohob as you enter into Emath. 23 And they went up at the south side, and came to Hebron, where were Achiman and Sisai and Tholmai the sons of Enac. For Hebron was built seven years before Tanis the city of Egypt. 24 And going forward as far as the torrent of the cluster of grapes, they cut off a branch with its cluster of grapes, which two men carried upon a lever. They took also of the pomegranates and of the figs of that place: 25 Which was called Nehelescol, that is to say, the torrent of the cluster of grapes, because from thence the children of Israel had carried a cluster of grapes.

26 And they that went to spy out the land returned after forty days, having gone round all the country, 27 And came to Moses and Aaron and to all the assembly of the children of Israel to the desert of Pharan, which is in Cades. And speaking to them and to all the multitude, they shewed them the fruits of the land: 28 And they related and said: We came into the land to which thou sentest us, which in very deed floweth with milk and honey as may be known by these fruits: 29 But it hath very strong inhabitants, and the cities are great and walled. We saw there the race of Enac. 30 Amalec dwelleth in the south, the Hethite and the Jebusite and the Amorrhite in the mountains: but the Chanaanite abideth by the sea and near the streams of the Jordan.

31 In the mean time Caleb, to still the murmuring of the people that rose against Moses, said: Let us go up and possess the land, for we shall be able to conquer it. 32 But the others, that had been with him, said: No, we are not able to go up to this people, because they are stronger than we. 33 And they spoke ill of the land, which they had viewed, before the children of Israel, saying: The land which we have viewed, devoureth its inhabitants: the people, that we beheld, are of a tall stature. 34 There we saw certain monsters of the sons of Enac, of the giant kind: in comparison of whom, we seemed like locusts.

33 "Spoke ill"... These men, who by their misrepresentations of the land of promise, discouraged the Israelites from attempting the conquest of it, were a figure of worldlings, who, by decrying or misrepresenting true devotion, discourage Christians from seeking in earnest and acquiring so great a good, and thereby securing to themselves a happy eternity.


Chapter 14

The people murmur. God threateneth to destroy them. He is appeased by Moses, yet so as to exclude the murmurers from entering the promised land. The authors of the sedition are struck dead. The rest going to fight against the will of God are beaten.

1 Wherefore the whole multitude crying wept that night. 2 And all the children of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron, saying: 3 Would God that we had died in Egypt and would God we may die in this vast wilderness, and that the Lord may not bring us into this land, lest we fall by the sword, and our wives and children be led away captives. Is it not better to return into Egypt? 4 And they said one to another: Let us appoint a captain, and let us return into Egypt. 5 And when Moses and Aaron heard this, they fell down flat upon the ground before the multitude of the children of Israel.

6 But Josue the son of Nun, and Caleb the son of Jephone, who themselves also had viewed the land, rent their garments, 7 And said to all the multitude of the children of Israel: The land which we have gone round is very good: 8 If the Lord be favourable, he will bring us into it, and give us a land flowing with milk and honey. 9 Be not rebellious against the Lord: and fear ye not the people of this land, for we are able to eat them up as bread. All aid is gone from them: the Lord is with us, fear ye not. 10 And when all the multitude cried out, and would have stoned them, the glory of the Lord appeared over the tabernacle of the covenant to all the children of Israel.

11 And the Lord said to Moses: How long will this people detract me? how long will they not believe me for all the signs that I have wrought before them? 12 I will strike them therefore with pestilence, and will consume them: but thee I will make a ruler over a great nation, and a mightier than this is. 13 And Moses said to the Lord: That the Egyptians, from the midst of whom thou hast brought forth this people, 14 And the inhabitants of this land, (who have heard that thou, O Lord, art among this people, and art seen face to face, and thy cloud protecteth them, and thou goest before them in a pillar of a cloud by day, and in a pillar of fire by night,) 15 May hear that thou hast killed so great a multitude as it were one man and may say:

16 He could not bring the people into the land for which he had sworn, therefore did he kill them in the wilderness. 17 Let their the strength of the Lord be magnified, as thou hast sworn, saying: 18 The Lord is patient and full of mercy, taking away iniquity and wickedness, and leaving no man clear, who visitest the sins of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation. 19 Forgive, I beseech thee, the sins of this people, according to the greatness of thy mercy, as thou hast been merciful to them from their going out of Egypt unto this place. 20 And the Lord said: I have forgiven according to thy word.

18 "Clear"... i. e., who deserves punishment.

21 As I live: and the whole earth shall be filled with the glory of the Lord. 22 But yet all the men that have seen my majesty, and the signs that I have done in Egypt, and in the wilderness, and have tempted me now ten times, and have not obeyed my voice, 23 Shall not see the land for which I aware to their fathers, neither shall any one of them that hath detracted me behold it. 24 My servant Caleb, who being full of another spirit hath followed me, I will bring into this land which he hath gone round: and his seed shall possess it. 25 For the Amalecite and the Chanaanite dwell in the valleys. Tomorrow remove the camp, and return into the wilderness by the way of the Red Sea.

26 And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying: 27 How long doth this wicked multitude murmur against me? I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel. 28 Say therefore to them: As I live, saith the Lord: According as you have spoken in my hearing, so will I do to you. 29 In the wilderness shall your carcasses lie. All you that were numbered from twenty years old and upward, and have murmured against me, 30 Shall not enter into the land, over which I lifted up my bend to make you dwell therein, except Caleb the son of Jephone, and Josue the son of Nun.

31 But your children, of whom you said, that they should be a prey to the enemies, will I bring in: that they may see the land which you have despised. 32 Your carcasses shall lie in the wilderness. 33 Your children shall wander in the desert forty years, and shall bear your fornication, until the carcasses of their fathers be consumed ill the desert, 34 According to the number of the forty days, wherein you viewed the land: year shall be counted for a day. And forty years you shall receive your iniquities, and shall know my revenge: 35 For as I have spoken, so will I do to all this wicked multitude, that hath risen up together against me: in this wilderness shall it faint away and die.

33 "Shall bear your fornication"... That is, shall bear the punishment of your disloyalty to God, which in the scripture language is here called a fornication, in a spiritual sense.

36 Therefore all the men, whom Moses had sent to view the land, and who at their return had made the whole multitude to murmur against him, speaking ill of the land that it was naught, 37 Died and were struck in the sight of the Lord. 38 But Josue. the son of Nun. and Caleb the son of Jephone lived, of all them that had gone to view the land. 39 And Moses spoke all these words to all the children of Israel, and the people mourned exceedingly. 40 And behold rising up very early in the morning, they went up to the top of the mountain, and said: We are ready to go up to the place, of which the Lord hath spoken: for we have sinned.

41 And Moses said to them: Why transgress you the word of the Lord, which shall not succeed prosperously with you? 42 Go not up, for the Lord is not with you: lest you fall before your enemies. 43 The Amalecite and the Chanaanite are before you, and by their sword you shall fall, because you would not consent to the Lord, neither will the Lord be with you. 44 But they being blinded went up to the top of the mountain. But the ark of the testament of the Lord and Moses departed not from the camp. 45 And the Amalecite came down, and the Chanaanite that dwelt in the mountain: and smiting and slaying them pursued them as far as Horma.


Chapter 15

Certain laws concerning sacrifices. Sabbath breaking is punished with death. The law of fringes on their garments.

1 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 2 Speak to the children of Israel and thou shalt say to them: When you shall be come into the land of your habitation, which I will give you, 3 And shall make an offering to the Lord, for a holocaust, or a victim, paying your vows, or voluntarily offering gifts, or in your solemnities burning a sweet savour unto the Lord, of oxen or of sheep: 4 Whosoever immolateth the victim, shall offer a sacrifice of fine flour, the tenth part of an ephi, tempered with the fourth part of a hin of oil: 5 And he shall give the same measure of wine to pour out in libations for the holocaust or for the victim. For every lamb,

6 And for every ram there shall be a sacrifice of hour of two tenths, which shall be tempered with the third part of a hin of oil: 7 And he shall offer the third part of the same measure of wine for the libation, for a sweet savour to the Lord. 8 But when thou offerest a holocaust or sacrifice of oxen, to fulfill thy vow or for victims of peace offerings, 9 Thou shalt give for every ox three tenths of flour tempered with half a hin of oil, 10 And wine for libations of the same measure, for an offering of most sweet savour to the Lord.

11 Thus shalt thou do: 12 For every ox and ram and lamb and kid. 13 Both they that are born in the land, and the strangers, 14 Shall offer sacrifices after the same rite. 15 There shall be all one law and judgment both for you and for them who are strangers in the land.

16 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 17 Speak to the children of Israel, and thou shalt say to them: 18 When you are come into the land which I will give you, 19 And shall eat of the bread of that country, you shall separate firstfruits to the Lord, 20 Of the things you eat. As you separate firstfruits of your barnfloors:

21 So also shall you give firstfruits of your dough to the Lord. 22 And if through ignorance you omit any of these things, which the Lord hath spoken to Moses, 23 And by him hath commanded you, from the day that he began to command and thenceforward, 24 And the multitude have forgotten to do it: they shall offer a calf out of the herd, a holocaust for a most sweet savour to the Lord, and the sacrifice and libations thereof, as the ceremonies require, and a buck goat for sin: 25 And the priest shall pray for all the multitude of the children of Israel: and it shall be forgiven them, because they sinned ignorantly, offering notwithstanding a burnt offering to the Lord for themselves and for their sin and their ignorance:

26 And it shall be forgiven all the people of the children of Israel: and the strangers that sojourn among them: because it is the fault of all the people through ignorance. 27 But if one soul shall sin ignorantly, he shall offer a she goat of a year old for his sin. 28 And the priest shall pray for him, because he sinned ignorantly before the Lord: and he shall obtain his pardon, and it shall be forgiven him. 29 The same law shall be for all that sin by ignorance, whether they be natives or strangers. 30 But the soul that committeth any thing through pride, whether he be born in the land or a stranger (because he hath been rebellious against the Lord) shall be cut off from among his people:

31 For he hath contemned the word the Lord, and made void his precept: therefore shall he be destroyed, and shall bear his iniquity. 32 And it came to pass, when the children of Israel were in the wilderness, and had found a man gathering sticks on the sabbath day, 33 That they brought him to Moses and Aaron and the whole multitude. 34 And they put him into prison, not knowing what they should do with him. 35 And the Lord said to Moses: Let that man die, let all the multitude stone him without the camp.

36 And when they had brought him out, they stoned him, and he died as the Lord had commanded. 37 The Lord also said to Moses: 38 Speak to the children of Israel, and thou shalt tell them I to make to themselves fringes in the corners of their garments, putting in them ribands of blue: 39 That when they shall see them, they may remember all the commandments of the Lord, and not follow their own thoughts and eyes going astray after divers things, 40 But rather being mindful of the precepts of the Lord, may do them and be holy to their God.

38 "Fringes"... The Pharisees enlarged these fringes through hypocrisy, Matt. 23. 5, to appear more zealous than other men for the law of God.

41 I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, that I might be your God.


Chapter 16

The schism of Core and his adherents: their punishment.

1 And behold Core the son of Isaar, the son of Caath, the son of Levi, and Dathan and Abiron the sons of Eliab, and Hon the son of Pheleth of the children of Ruben, 2 Rose up against Moses, and with them two hundred and fifty others of the children of Israel, leading men of the synagogue, and who in the time of assembly were called by name. 3 And when they had stood up against Moses and Aaron, they said: Let it be enough for you, that all the multitude consisteth of holy ones, and the Lord is among them: Why lift you up yourselves above the people of the Lord? 4 When Moses heard this, he fell flat on his face: 5 And speaking to Core and all the multitude, he said: In the morning the Lord will make known who belong to him, and the holy he will join to himself: and whom he shall choose, they shall approach to him.

2 "Rose up"... The crime of these men, which was punished in so remarkable a manner, was that of schism, and of rebellion against the authority established by God in the church; and their pretending to the priesthood without being lawfully called and sent: the same is the case of all modern sectaries.

6 Do this therefore: Take every man of you your censers, thou Core, and all thy company. 7 And putting fire in them tomorrow, put incense upon it before the Lord: and whomsoever he shall choose, the same shall be holy: you take too much upon you, ye sons of Levi. 8 And he said again to Core: Hear ye sons of Levi. 9 Is it a small thing unto you, that the God of Israel hath spared you from all the people, and joined you to himself, that you should serve him in the service of the tabernacle, and should stand before the congregation of the people, and should minister to him? 10 Did he therefore make thee and all thy brethren the sons of Levi to approach unto him, that you should challenge to yourselves the priesthood also,

11 And that all thy company should stand against the Lord? for what is Aaron that you murmur against him? 12 Then Moses sent to call Dathan and Abiron the sons of Eliab. But they answered: We will not come. 13 Is it a small matter to thee, that thou hast brought us out of a land that flowed with milk and honey, to kill us in the desert, except thou rule also like a lord over us? 14 Thou hast brought us indeed into a land that floweth with rivers of milk and honey, and hast given us possessions of fields and vineyards; wilt thou also pull out our eyes? We will not come. 15 Moses therefore being very angry, said to the Lord: Respect not their sacrifices: thou knowest that I have not taken of them so much as a young ass at any time, nor have injured any of them.

15 "Very angry"... This anger was a zeal against sin; and an indignation at the affront offered to God; like that which the same holy prophet conceived upon the sight of the golden calf, Ex. 32. 19.

16 And he said to Core: Do thou and thy congregation stand apart before the Lord tomorrow, and Aaron apart. 17 Take every one of you censers, and put incense upon them, offering to the Lord two hundred and fifty censers: let Aaron also hold his censer. 18 When they had done this, Moses and Aaron standing, 19 And had drawn up all the multitude against them to the door of the tabernacle, the glory of the Lord appeared to them all. 20 And the Lord speaking to Moses and Aaron, said:

21 Separate yourselves from among this congregation, that I may presently destroy them. 22 They fell flat on their face, and said: O most mighty, the God of the spirits of all flesh, for one man's sin shall thy wrath rage against all? 23 And the Lord said to Moses: 24 Command the whole people to separate themselves from the tents of Core and Dathan and Abiron. 25 And Moses arose, and went to Dathan and Abiron: and the ancients of Israel following him,

26 He said to the multitude: Depart from the tents of these wicked men, and touch nothing of theirs, lest you be involved in their sins. 27 And when they were departed from their tents round about, Dathan and Abiron coming out stood in the entry of their pavilions with their wives and children, and all the people. 28 And Moses said: By this you shall know that the Lord hath sent me to do all things that you see, and that I have not forged them of my own head: 29 If these men die the common death of men, and if they be visited with a plague, wherewith others also are wont to be visited, the Lord did not send me. 30 But if the Lord do a new thing, and the earth opening her mouth swallow them down, and all things that belong to them, and they go down alive into hell, you shall know that they have blasphemed the Lord.

31 And immediately as he had made an end of speaking, the earth broke asunder under their feet: 32 And opening her mouth, devoured them with their tents and all their substance. 33 And they went down alive into hell the ground closing upon them, and they perished from among the people. 34 But all Israel, that was standing round about, fled at the cry of them that were perishing: saying: Lest perhaps the earth swallow us up also. 35 And a fire coming out from the Lord, destroyed the two hundred and fifty men that offered the incense.

36 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 37 Command Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest to take up the censers that lie in the burning, and to scatter the fire of one side and the other: because they are sanctified 38 In the deaths of the sinners: and let him beat them into plates, and fasten them to the altar, because incense hath been offered in them to the Lord, and they are sanctified, that the children of Israel may see them for a sign and a memorial. 39 Then Eleazar the priest took the brazen censers, wherein they had offered, whom the burning fire had devoured, and beat them into plates, fastening them to the altar: 40 That the children of Israel might have for the time to come wherewith they should be admonished, that no stranger or any one that is not of seed of Aaron should come near to offer incense to the Lord, lest he should suffer as Core suffered, and all his congregation, according as the Lord spoke to Moses.

41 The following day all the multitude of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron, saying: You have killed the people of the Lord. 42 And when there arose a sedition, and the tumult increased, 43 Moses and Aaron fled to the tabernacle of the covenant. And when the were gone into it, the cloud covered it, and the glory of the Lord appeared. 44 And the Lord said to Moses: 45 Get you out from the midst of this multitude, this moment will I destroy them. And as they were lying on the ground,

46 Moses said to Aaron: Take the censer, and putting fire in it from the altar, put incense upon it, and go quickly to the people to pray for them: for already wrath is gone out from the Lord, and the plague rageth. 47 When Aaron had done this, and had run to the midst of the multitude which the burning fire was now destroying, he offered the incense: 48 And standing between the dead and the living, he prayed for the people, and the plague ceased. 49 And the number of them that were slain was fourteen thousand and seven hundred men, besides them that had perished in the sedition of Core. 50 And Aaron returned to Moses to the door of the tabernacle of the covenant after the destruction was over.


Chapter 17

The priesthood is confirmed to Aaron by the miracle of the blooming of his rod, which is kept for a monument in the tabernacle.

1 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 2 Speak to the children of Israel, and take of every one of them a rod by their kindreds, of all the princes of the tribes, twelve rods, and write the name of every man upon his rod. 3 And the name of Aaron shall be for the tribe of Levi, and one rod shall contain all their families: 4 And thou shalt lay them up in the tabernacle of the covenant before the testimony, where I will speak to thee. 5 Whomsoever of these I shall choose, his rod shall blossom: and I will make to cease from me the murmurings of the children of Israel, wherewith they murmur against you.

6 And Moses spoke to the children of Israel: and all the princes gave him rods one for every tribe: and there were twelve rods besides the rod of Aaron. 7 And when Moses had laid them up before the Lord in the tabernacle of the testimony: 8 He returned on the following day, and found that the rod of Aaron for the house of Levi, was budded: and that the buds swelling it had bloomed blossoms, which spreading the leaves, were formed into almonds. 9 Moses therefore brought out all the rods from before the Lord to all the children of Israel: and they saw, and every one received their rods. 10 And the Lord said to Moses: Carry back the rod of Aaron into the tabernacle of the testimony, that it may be kept there for a token of the rebellious children of Israel, and that their complaints may cease from me lest they die.

8 "The rod of Aaron for the house of Levi, was budded"... This rod of Aaron which thus miraculously brought forth fruit, was a figure of the blessed Virgin conceiving and bringing forth her Son without any prejudice to her virginity.

11 And Moses did as the Lord had commanded. 12 And the children of Israel said to Moses: Behold we are consumed, we all perish. 13 Whosoever approacheth to the tabernacle of the Lord, he dieth. Are we all to a man to be utterly destroyed?


Chapter 18

The charge of the priests and of the Levites, and their portion.

1 And the Lord said to Aaron: Thou, and thy sons, and thy father's house with thee shall bear the iniquity of the sanctuary: and thou and thy sons with thee shall bear the sins of your priesthood. 2 And take with thee thy brethren also of the tribe of Levi, and the sceptre of thy father, and let them be ready in hand, and minister to thee: but thou and thy sons shall minister in the tabernacle of the testimony. 3 And the Levites shall watch to do thy commands, and about all the works of the tabernacle: only they shall not come nigh the vessels of the sanctuary nor the altar, lest both they die, and you also perish with them. 4 But let them be with thee, and watch in the charge of the tabernacle, and in all the ceremonies thereof. A stranger shall not join himself with you. 5 Watch ye in the charge of the sanctuary, and in the ministry of the altar: lest indignation rise upon the children of Israel.

1 "And thy father's house with thee, shall bear the iniquity of the sanctuary"... That is, you shall be punished if, through negligence or want of due attention, you err in the discharge of the sacred functions for which you were ordained.

6 I have given you your brethren the Levites from among the children of Israel, and have delivered them for a gift to the Lord, to serve in the ministries of the tabernacle. 7 But thou and thy sons look ye to the priesthood: and all things that pertain to the service of the altar, and that are within the veil, shall be executed by the priests. If any stranger shall approach, he shall be slain. 8 And the Lord said to Aaron: Behold I have given thee the charge of my firstfruits. All things that are sanctified by the children of Israel, I have delivered to thee and to thy sons for the priestly office, by everlasting ordinances. 9 These therefore shalt thou take of the things that are sanctified, and are offered to the Lord. Every offering, and sacrifice, and whatsoever is rendered to me for sin and for trespass, and becometh holy of holies, shall be for thee and thy sons. 10 Thou shalt eat it in the sanctuary: the males only shall eat thereof, because it is a consecrated thing to thee.

11 But the firstfruits, which the children of Israel shall vow and offer, I have given to thee, and to thy sons, and to thy daughters, by a perpetual law. He that is clean in thy house, shall eat them. 12 All the best of the oil, and of the wine, and of the corn, whatsoever firstfruits they offer to the Lord, I have given them to thee. 13 All the firstripe of the fruits, that the ground bringeth forth, and which are brought to the Lord, shall be for thy use: he that is clean in thy house, shall eat them. 14 Every thing that the children of Israel shall give by vow, shall be thine. 15 Whatsoever is firstborn of all flesh, which they offer to the Lord, whether it be of men, or of beasts, shall belong to thee: only for the firstborn of man thou shalt take a price, and every beast that is unclean thou shalt cause to be redeemed,

16 And the redemption of it shall be after one month, for five sicles of silver, by the weight of the sanctuary. A sicle hath twenty obols. 17 But the firstling of a cow and of a sheep and of a goat thou shalt not cause to be redeemed, because they are sanctified to the Lord. Their blood only thou shalt pour upon the altar, and their fat thou shalt burn for a most sweet odour to the Lord. 18 But the flesh shall fall to thy use, as the consecrated breast, and the right shoulder shall be thine. 19 All the firstfruits of the sanctuary which the children of Israel offer to the Lord, I have given to thee and to thy sons and daughters, by a perpetual ordinance. It is a covenant of salt for ever before the Lord, to thee and to thy sons. 20 And the Lord said to Aaron: You shall possess nothing in their land, neither shall you have a portion among them: I am thy portion and inheritance in the midst of the children of Israel.

19 "A covenant of salt"... It is a proverbial expression, signifying a covenant not to be altered or corrupted; as salt is used to keep things from corruption; a covenant perpetual, like that by which it was appointed, that salt should be used in every sacrifice. Lev. 2.

21 And I have given to the sons of Levi all the tithes of Israel for a possession for the ministry wherewith they serve me in the tabernacle of the covenant: 22 That the children of Israel may not approach any more to the tabernacle, nor commit deadly sin, 23 But only the sons of Levi may serve me in the tabernacle, and bear the sins of the people. It shall be an everlasting ordinance in your generations. They shall not possess any other thing, 24 But be content with the oblation or tithes, which I have separated for their uses and necessities. 25 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:

22 "Deadly sin"... That is, sin which will bring death after it.

26 Command the Levites, and declare unto them: When you shall receive of the children of Israel the tithes, which I have given you, offer the firstfruits of them to the Lord, that is to say, the tenth part of the tenth: 27 That it may be reckoned to you as an oblation of firstfruits, as well of the barnfloors as of the winepresses: 28 And of all the things of which you receive tithes, offer the firstfruits to the Lord, and give them to Aaron the priest. 29 All the things that you shall offer of the tithes, and shall separate for the gifts of the Lord, shall be the best and choicest things. 30 And thou shalt say to them: If you offer all the goodly and the better things of the tithes, it shall be reckoned to you as if you had given the firstfruits of the barnfloor and the winepress:

31 And you shall eat them in all your places, both you and your families: because it is your reward for the ministry, wherewith you serve in the tabernacle of the testimony. 32 And you shall not sin in this point, by reserving the choicest and fat things to yourselves, lest you profane the oblations of the children of Israel, and die.


Chapter 19

The law of the sacrifice of the red cow, and the water of expiation.

1 And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying: 2 This is the observance of the victim, which the Lord hath ordained. Command the children of Israel, that they bring unto thee a red cow of full age, in which there is no blemish, and which hath not carried the yoke: 3 And you shall deliver her to Eleazar the priest, who shall bring her forth without the camp, and shall immolate her in the sight of all: 4 And dipping his finger in her blood, shall sprinkle it over against the door of the tabernacle seven times, 5 And shall burn her in the sight of all, delivering up to the fire her skin, and her flesh, and her blood, and her dung.

2 "A red cow"... This red cow, offered in sacrifice for sin, and consumed with fire without the camp, with the ashes of which, mingled with water, the unclean were to be expiated and purified; was a figure of the passion of Christ, by whose precious blood applied to our souls in the holy sacraments, we are cleansed from our sins.

6 The priest shall also take cedar wood, and hyssop, and scarlet twice dyed, and cast it into the flame, with which the cow is consumed. 7 And then after washing his garments, and body, he shall enter into the camp, and shall be unclean until the evening. 8 He also that hath burned her, shall wash his garments, and his body, and shall be unclean until the evening. 9 And a man that is clean shall gather up the ashes of the cow, and shall pour them forth without the camp in a most clean place, that they may be reserved for the multitude of the children of Israel, and for a water of aspersion: because the cow was burnt for sin. 10 And when he that carried the ashes of the cow, hath washed his garments, he shall be unclean until the evening. The children of Israel, and the strangers that dwell among them, shall observe this for a holy thing by a perpetual ordinance.

11 He that toucheth the corpse of a man, and is therefore unclean seven days, 12 Shall be sprinkled with this water on the third day, and on the seventh, and so shall be cleansed. If he were not sprinkled on the third day, he cannot be cleansed on the seventh. 13 Every one that toucheth the corpse of a man, and is not sprinkled with mixture, shall profane the tabernacle of the Lord, and shall perish out of Israel: because he was not sprinkled with the water of expiation, he shall be unclean, and his uncleanness shall remain upon him. 14 This is the law of a man that dieth in a tent: All that go into his tent and all the vessels that are there, shall be unclean seven days. 15 The vessel that hath no cover, nor binding over it, shall be unclean.

16 If any man in the field touch the corpse of a man that was slain, or that died of himself, or his bone, or his grave, he shall be unclean seven days. 17 And they shall take of the ashes of the burning and of the sin offering, and shall pour living waters upon them into a vessel. 18 And a man that is clean shall dip hyssop in them, and shall sprinkle therewith all the tent, and all the furniture, and the men that are defiled with touching any such thing: 19 And in this manner he that is clean shall purify the unclean on the third and on the seventh day. And being expiated the seventh day, he shall wash both himself and his garments, and be unclean until the evening. 20 If any man be not expiated after this rite, his soul shall perish out of the midst of the church: because he hath profaned the sanctuary of the Lord, and was not sprinkled with the water of purification.

21 This precept shall be an ordinance for ever. He also that sprinkled the water, shall wash his garments. Every one that shall touch the waters of expiation, shall be unclean until the evening. 22 Whatsoever a person toucheth who is unclean, he shall make it unclean: and the person that toucheth any of these things, shall be unclean until the evening.


Chapter 20

The death of Mary the sister of Moses. The people murmur for want of water: God giveth it them from the rock. The death of Aaron.

1 And the children of Israel, and all the multitude came into the desert of Sin, in the first month: and the people abode in Cades. And Mary died there, and was buried in the same place. 2 And the people wanting water, came together against Moses and Aaron: 3 And making a sedition, they said: Would God we had perished among our brethren before the Lord. 4 Why have you brought out the church of the Lord into the wilderness, that both we and our cattle should die? 5 Why have you made us come up out of Egypt, and have brought us into this wretched place which cannot be sowed, nor bringeth forth figs, nor vines, nor pomegranates, neither is there any water to drink?

6 And Moses and Aaron leaving the multitude, went into the tabernacle of the covenant, and fell flat upon the ground, and cried to the Lord, and said: O Lord God, hear the cry of this people, and open to them thy treasure, a fountain of living water, that being satisfied, they may cease to murmur. And the glory of the Lord appeared over them. 7 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 8 Take the rod, and assemble the people together, thou and Aaron thy brother, and speak to the rock before them, and it shall yield waters. And when thou hast brought forth water out of the rock, all the multitude and their cattle shall drink. 9 Moses therefore took the rod, which was before the Lord, as he had commanded him, 10 And having gathered together the multitude before the rock, he said to them: Hear, ye rebellious and incredulous: Can we bring you forth water out of this rock?

11 And when Moses had lifted up his hand, and struck the rock twice with the rod, there came forth water in great abundance, so that the people and their cattle drank, 12 And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron: Because you have not believed me, to sanctify me before the children of Israel, you shall not bring these people into the land, which I will give them. 13 This is the Water of contradiction, where the children of Israel strove with words against the Lord, and he was sanctified in them. 14 In the mean time Moses sent messengers from Cades to the king of Edom, to say: Thus saith thy brother Israel: Thou knowest all the labour that hath come upon us: 15 In what manner our fathers went down into Egypt, and there we dwelt a long time, and the Egyptians afflicted us and our fathers.

11 "The rock"... This rock was a figure of Christ, and the water that issued out from the rock, of his precious blood, the source of all our good.

12 "You have not believed"... The fault of Moses and Aaron, on this occasion, was a certain diffidence and weakness of faith; not doubting of God's power or veracity; but apprehending the unworthiness of that rebellious and incredulous people, and therefore speaking with some ambiguity.

13 "The Water of contradiction"... Or strife. Hebrew, Meribah.

16 And how we cried to the Lord, and he heard us, and sent an angel, who hath brought us out of Egypt. Lo, we are now in the city of Cades, which is in the uttermost of thy borders, 17 And we beseech thee that we may have leave to pass through thy country. We will not go through the fields, nor through the vineyards, we will not drink the waters of thy wells, but we will go by the common highway, neither turning aside to the right hand, nor to the left, till we are past thy borders. 18 And Edom answered them: Thou shalt not pass by me: if thou dost I will come out armed against thee. 19 And the children of Israel said: We will go by the beaten way: and if we and our cattle drink of thy waters, we will give thee what is just: there shall be no difficulty in the price, only let us pass speedily. 20 But he answered: Thou shalt not pass. And immediately he came forth to meet them with an infinite multitude, and a strong hand,

21 Neither would he condescend to their desire to grant them passage through his borders. Wherefore Israel turned another way from him. 22 And when they had removed the camp from Cades, they came to mount Her, which is in the borders of the land of Edom: 23 Where the Lord spoke to Moses: 24 Let Aaron, saith he, go to his people: for he shall not go into the land which I have given the children of Israel, because he was incredulous to my words, at the waters of contradiction. 25 Take Aaron and his son with him, and bring them up into mount Hor:

26 And when thou hast stripped the father of his vesture, thou shalt vest therewith Eleazar his son: Aaron shall be gathered to his people, and die there. 27 Moses did as the Lord had commanded: and they went up into mount Hor before all the multitude. 28 And when he had stripped Aaron of his vestments, he vested Eleazar his son with them. 29 And Aaron being dead in the top of the mountain, he came down with Eleazar. 30 And all the multitude seeing that Aaron was dead, mourned for him thirty days throughout all their families.


Chapter 21

King Arad is overcome. The people murmur and are punished with fiery serpents: they are healed by the brazen serpent. They conquer the kings Sehon and Og.

1 And when king Arad the Chanaanite, who dwelt towards the south, had heard this, to wit, that Israel was come by the way of the spies, he fought against them, and overcoming them carried off their spoils. 2 But Israel binding himself by vow to the Lord, said: It thou wilt deliver this people into my hand, I will utterly destroy their cities. 3 And the Lord heard the prayers of Israel, and delivered up the Chanaanite, and they cut them off and destroyed their cities: and they called the name of that place Horma, that is to say, Anathema. 4 And they marched from mount Hor, by the way that leadeth to the Red Sea, to compass the land of Edom. And the people began to be weary of their journey and labour: 5 And speaking against God and Moses, they said: Why didst thou bring us out of Egypt, to die in the wilderness? There is no bread, nor have we any waters: our soul now loatheth this very light food.

3 "Anathema"... That is, a thing devoted to utter destruction.

5 "Very light food"... So they call the heavenly manna: thus worldlings loathe the things of heaven, for which they have no relish.

6 Wherefore the Lord sent among the people fiery serpents, which bit them and killed many of them. 7 Upon which they came to Moses, and said: We have sinned, because we have spoken against the Lord and thee: pray that he may take away these serpents from us. And Moses prayed for the people. 8 And the Lord said to him: Make brazen serpent, and set it up for a sign: whosoever being struck shall look on it, shall live. 9 Moses therefore made a brazen serpent, and set it up for a sign: which when they that were bitten looked upon, they were healed. 10 And the children of Israel setting forwards camped in Oboth.

6 "Fiery serpents"... They are so called, because they that were bitten by them were burnt with a violent heat.

9 "A brazen serpent"... This was a figure of Christ crucified, and of the efficacy of a lively faith in him, against the bites of the hellish serpent. John 3. 14.

11 And departing thence they pitched their tents in Jeabarim, in the wilderness, that faceth Moab toward the east. 12 And removing from thence, they came to the torrent Zared: 13 Which they left and encamped over against Arnon, which is in the desert and standeth out on the borders of the Amorrhite. For Arnon is the border of Moab, dividing the Moabites and the Amorrhites. 14 Wherefore it is said in the book of the wars of the Lord: As he did in the Red Sea, so will he do in the streams of Amen. 15 The rocks of the torrents were bowed down that they might rest in Ar, and lie down in the borders of the Moabites.

14 "The book of the wars"... An ancient book, which, like several others quoted in scripture, has been lost.

16 When they went from that place, the well appeared whereof the Lord said to Moses: Gather the people together, and I will give them water. 17 Then Israel sung this song: Let the well spring up. They sung thereto: 18 The well, which the princes dug, and the chiefs of the people prepared by the direction of the lawgiver, and with their staves. And they marched from the wilderness to Mathana. 19 From Mathana unto Nahaliel: from Nahaliel unto Bamoth. 20 From Bamoth, is a valley in the country of Moab, to the top of Phasga, which looked towards the desert.

21 And Israel sent messengers to Sehon king of the Amorrhites, saying: 22 I beseech thee that I may have leave to pass through thy land: we will not go aside into the fields or the vineyards, we will not drink waters of the wells, we will go the king's highway, till we be past thy borders. 23 And he would not grant that Israel should pass by his borders: but rather gathering an army, went forth to meet them in the desert, and came to Jasa, and fought against them. 24 And he was slain by them with the edge of the sword, and they possessed his land from the Arnon unto the Jeboc, and to the confines of the children of Ammon: for the borders of the Ammonites, were kept with a strong garrison. 25 So Israel took all his cities, and dwelt in the cities of the Amorrhite, to wit, in Hesebon, and in the villages thereof.

26 Hesebon was the city of Sehon the king of the Amorrhites, who fought against the king of Moab: and took all the land, that had been of his dominions, as far as the Arnon. 27 Therefore it is said in the proverb: Come into Hesebon, let the city of Sehon be built and set up: 28 A fire is gone out of Hesebon, a flame from the city of Sehon, and hath consumed Ar of the Moabites, and the inhabitants of the high places of the Arnon. 29 Woe to thee Moab: thou art undone, O people of Chamos. He hath given his sons to flight, and his daughters into captivity to Sehon the king of the Amorrhites. 30 Their yoke is perished from Hesebon unto Dibon, they came weary to Nophe, and unto Medaba.

31 So Israel dwelt in the land of the Amorrhite. 32 And Moses sent some to take a view of Jazer: and they took the villages of it, and conquered the inhabitants. 33 And they turned themselves, and went up by the way of Basan, and Og the king of Basan came against them with all his people, to fight in Edrai. 34 And the Lord said to Moses: Fear him not, for I have delivered him and all his people, and his country into thy hand: and thou shalt do to him as thou didst to Sehon the king of the Amorrhites, the inhabitant of Hesebon. 35 So they slew him also with his sons, and all his people, not letting any one escape, and they possessed his land.


Balac, king of Moab, sendeth twice for Balaam to curse Israel. In his way Balaam is rebuked by an angel.

1 And they went forward and encamped in the plains of Moab, over against where Jericho is situate beyond the Jordan. 2 And Balac the son of Sephor, seeing all that Israel had done to the Amorrhite, 3 And that the Moabites were in great fear of him, and were not able to sustain his assault, 4 He said to the elders of Madian: So will this people destroy all that dwell in our borders, as the ox is wont to eat the grass to the very roots. Now he was at that time king in Moab. 5 He sent therefore messengers to Balaam the son of Beer, a soothsayer, who dwelt by the river of the land of the children of Ammon, to call him, and to say: Behold a people is come out of Egypt, that hath covered the face of the earth, sitting over against me.

6 Come therefore, and curse this people, because it is mightier than I: if by any means I may beat them and drive them out of my land: for I know that he whom thou shalt bless is blessed, and he whom thou shalt curse is cursed. 7 And the ancients of Moab, and the elders of Madian, went with the price of divination in their hands. And when they were come to Balaam, and had told him all the words of Balac: 8 He answered: Tarry here this night, and I will answer whatsoever the Lord shall say to me. And while they stayed with Balaam, God came and said to him: 9 What mean these men that are with thee? 10 He answered: Balac the son of Sephor king of the Moabites hath sent to me,

11 Saying: Behold a people that is come out of Egypt, hath covered the face of the land: come and curse them, if by any means I may fight with them and drive them away. 12 And God said to Balaam: Thou shalt not go with them, nor shalt thou curse the people: because it is blessed. 13 And he rose in the morning and said to the princes: Go into your country, because the Lord hath forbid me to come with you. 14 The princes returning, said to Balac: Balaam would not come with us. 15 Then he sent many more and more noble than he had sent before:

16 Who, when they were come to Balaam, said: Thus saith Balac the son of Sephor, Delay not to come to me: 17 For I am ready to honour thee, and will give thee whatsoever thou wilt: come and curse this people. 18 Balaam answered: If Balac would give me his house full of silver and gold, I cannot alter the word of the Lord my God, to speak either more or less. 19 I pray you to stay here this night also, that I may know what the Lord will answer me once more. 20 God therefore came to Balaam in the night, and said to him: It these men be come to call thee, arise and go with them: yet so, that thou do what I shall command thee.

19 "To stay"... His desiring them to stay, after he had been fully informed already that it was not God's will he should go, came from the inclination he had to gratify Balac, for the sake of worldly gain. And this perverse disposition God punished by permitting him to go (though not to curse the people as he would willingly have done), and suffering him to fall still deeper and deeper into sin, till he came at last to give that abominable counsel against the people of God, which ended in his own destruction. So sad a thing it is to indulge a passion for money.

21 Balaam arose in the morning, and saddling his ass went with them. 22 And God was angry. And an angel of the Lord stood in the way against Balaam, who sat on the ass, and had two servants with him. 23 The ass seeing the angel standing in the way, with a drawn sword, turned herself out of the way, and went into the field. And when Balaam beat her, and had a mind to bring her again to the way, 24 The angel stood in a narrow place between two walls, wherewith the vineyards were enclosed. 25 And the ass seeing him, thrust herself close to the wall, and bruised the foot of the rider. But he beat her again:

26 And nevertheless the angel going on to a narrow place, where there was no way to turn aside either to the right hand or to the left, stood to meet him. 27 And when the ass saw the angel standing, she fell under the feet of the rider: who being angry beat her sides more vehemently with a staff. 28 And the Lord opened the mouth of the ass, and she said: What have I done to thee? Why strikest thou me, lo, now this third time? 29 Balaam answered: Because thou hast deserved it, and hast served me ill: I would I had a sword that I might kill thee. 30 The ass said: Am not I thy beast, on which thou hast been always accustomed to ride until this present day? tell me if I ever did the like thing to thee. But he said: Never.

28 "Opened the mouth"... The angel moved the tongue of the ass, to utter these speeches, to rebuke, by the mouth of a brute beast, the brutal fury and folly of Balaam.

31 Forthwith the Lord opened the eyes of Balaam, and he saw the angel standing in the way with a drawn sword, and he worshipped him falling flat on the ground. 32 And the angel said to him: Why beatest thou thy ass these three times? I am come to withstand thee, because thy way is perverse, and contrary to me: 33 And unless the ass had turned out of the way, giving place to me who stood against thee, I had slain thee, and she should have lived. 34 Balaam said: I have sinned, not knowing that thou didst stand against me: and now if it displease thee that I go, I will return. 35 The angel said: Go with these men, and see thou speak no other thing than what I shall command thee. He went therefore with the princes.

32 "Perverse"... Because thy inclinations are wicked in being willing for the sake of gain to curse the people of whom I am the guardian.

36 And when Balac heard it he came forth to meet him in a town of the Moabites, that is situate in the uttermost borders of Arnon. 37 And he said to Balaam: I sent messengers to call thee, why didst thou not come immediately to me? was it because I am not able to reward thy coming? 38 He answered him: Lo, here I am: shall I have power to speak any other thing but that which God shall put in my mouth? 39 So they went on together, and came into a city, that was in the uttermost borders of his kingdom. 40 And when Balac had killed oxen and sheep, he sent presents to Balaam, and to the princes that were with him.

41 And when morning was come, he brought him to the high places of Baal, and he beheld the uttermost part of the people.


Chapter 23

Balaam, instead of cursing Israel, is obliged to bless them, and prophesy good things of them.

1 And Balaam said to Balac: Build me here seven altars, and prepare as many calves, and the same number of rams. 2 And when he had done according to the word of Balaam, they laid together a calf and a ram upon every altar. 3 And Balaam said to Balac: Stand a while by thy burnt offering, until I go, to see if perhaps the Lord will meet me, and whatsoever he shall command, I will speak to thee. 4 And when he was gone with speed, God met him. And Balaam speaking to him, said: I have erected seven altars, and have laid on everyone a calf and a ram. 5 And the Lord put the word in his mouth, and said: Return to Balac, and thus shalt thou speak.

6 Returning he found Balac standing by his burnt offering, with all the princes of the Moabites: 7 And taking up his parable, he said: Balac king of the Moabites hath brought me from Aram, from the mountains of the east: Come, said he, and curse Jacob: make haste and detest Israel. 8 How shall I curse him, whom God hath not cursed? By what means should I detest him, whom the Lord detesteth not? 9 I shall see him from the tops of the rocks, and shall consider him from the hills. This people shall dwell alone, and shall not be reckoned among the nations. 10 Who can count the dust of Jacob, and know the number of the stock of Israel? Let my soul die the death of the just, and my last end be like to them.

11 And Balac said to Balaam: What is this that thou dost? I sent for thee to curse my enemies: and thou contrariwise blessest them. 12 He answered him: Call I speak any thing else but what the Lord commandeth? 13 Balac therefore said: Come with me to another place from whence thou mayest see part of Israel, and canst not see them all: curse them from thence. 14 And when he had brought him to a high place, upon the top of mount Phasga, Balaam built seven altars, and laying on every one a calf and a ram, 15 He said to Balac: Stand here by thy burnt offering while I go to meet him.

16 And when the Lord had met him, and had put the word in his mouth, he said: Return to Balac, and thus shalt thou say to him. 17 Returning he found him standing by his burnt sacrifice, and the princes of the Moabites with him. And Balac said to him: What hath the Lord spoken? 18 But he taking up his parable, said: Stand, O Balac, and give ear: hear, thou son of Sephor: 19 God is not a man, that he should lie, nor as the son of man, that he should be changed. Hath he said then, and will he not do? hath he spoken, and will he not fulfill? 20 I was brought to bless, the blessing I am not able to hinder.

21 There is no idol in Jacob, neither is there an image god to be seen in Israel. The Lord his God is with him, and the sound of the victory of the king in him. 22 God hath brought him out of Egypt, whose strength is like to the rhinoceros. 23 There is no soothsaying in Jacob, nor divination in Israel. In their times it shall be told to Jacob and to Israel what God hath wrought. 24 Behold the people shall rise up as a lioness, and shall lift itself up as a lion: it shall not lie down till it devour the prey, and drink the blood of the slain. 25 And Balac said to Balaam: Neither curse, nor bless him.

26 And he said: Did I not tell thee, that whatsoever God should command me, that I would do? 27 And Balac said to him: Come and I will bring thee to another place; if peradventure it please God that thou mayest curse them from thence. 28 And when he had brought him upon the top of mount Phogor, which looketh towards the wilderness, 29 Balaam said to him: Build me here seven altars, and prepare as many calves, and the same number of rams. 30 Balac did as Balaam had said: and he laid on every altar, a calf and a ram.


Chapter 24

Balaam still continues to prophesy good things in favour of Israel.

1 And when Balaam saw that it pleased the Lord that he should bless Israel. he went not as he had gone before, to seek divination: but setting his face towards the desert, 2 And lifting up his eyes, he saw Israel abiding in their tents by their tribes: and the spirit of God rushing upon him, 3 He took up his parable and said: Balaam the son of Beor hath said: The man hath said, whose eye ire stopped up: 4 The hearer of the words of God hath said, he that hath beheld the vision of the Almighty, he that falleth, and so his eyes are opened: 5 How beautiful are thy tabernacles, O Jacob, and thy tents, O Israel!

6 As woody valleys, as watered gardens near the rivers, as tabernacles which the Lord hath pitched, as cedars by the waterside. 7 Water shall flow out of his bucket, and his seed shall be in many waters. For Agag his king shall be removed, and his kingdom shall be taken awry. 8 God hath brought him out of Egypt, whose strength is like to the rhinoceros. They shall devour the nations that are his enemies, and break their bones, and pierce them with arrows. 9 Lying down he hath slept as a lion, and as a lioness, whom none shall dare to rouse. He that blesseth thee, shall also himself be blessed: he that curseth thee shall be reckoned accursed. 10 And Balac being angry against Balaam, clapped his hands together and said: I called thee to curse my enemies, and thou on the contrary hast blessed them three times.

11 Return to thy place. I had determined indeed greatly to honour thee, but the Lord hath deprived thee of the honour designed for thee. 12 Balaam made answer to Balac: Did I not say to thy messengers, whom thou sentest to me: 13 If Balac would give me his house full of silver and gold, I cannot go beyond the word of the Lord my God, to utter any thing of my own head either good or evil: but whatsoever the Lord shall say, that I will speak? 14 But yet going to my people, I will give thee counsel, what this people shall do to thy people in the latter days. 15 Therefore taking up his parable, again he said: Balaam the son of Beor hath said: The man whose eye is stopped up, hath said:

16 The hearer of the words of God hath said, who knoweth the doctrine of the Highest, and seeth the visions of the Almighty, who falling hath his eyes opened: 17 I shall see him, but not now: I shall behold him, but not near. A STAR SHALL RISE out of Jacob and a sceptre shall spring up from Israel: and shall strike the chiefs of Moab, and shall waste all the children of Seth. 18 And he shall possess Idumea: the inheritance of Seir shall come to their enemies, but Israel shall do manfully. 19 Out of Jacob shall he come that shall rule, and shall destroy the remains of the city. 20 And when he saw Amalec, he took up his parable, and said: Amalec the beginning of nations, whose latter ends shall be destroyed.

21 He saw also the Cinite: and took up his parable, and said: Thy habitation indeed is strong: but though thou build thy nest in a rock, 22 And thou be chosen of the stock of Cin, how long shalt thou be able to continue? For Assur shall take thee captive. 23 And taking up his parable, again he said: Alas, who shall live when God shall do these things? 24 They shall come in galleys from Italy, they shall overcome the Assyrians, and shall waste the Hebrews, and at the last they themselves also shall perish. 25 And Balaam rose, and returned to his place: Balac also returned the way that he came.


Chapter 25

The people fall into fornication and idolatry; for which twenty-four thousand are slain. The zeal of Phinees.

1 And Israel at that time abode in Settim, and the people committed fornication with the daughters of Moab, 2 Who called them to their sacrifices. And they ate of them, and adored their gods. 3 And Israel was initiated to Beelphegor: upon which the Lord being angry, 4 Said to Moses: Take all the princes of the people, and hang them up on gibbets against the sun: that my fury may be turned away from Israel. 5 And Moses said to the judges of Israel: Let every man kill his neighbours, that have been initiated to Beelphegor.

3 "Initiated to Beelphegor"... That is, they took to the worship of Beelphegor, an obscene idol of the Moabites, and were consecrated, as it were, to him.

6 And behold one of the children of Israel went in before his brethren to a harlot of Madian, in the sight of Moses, and of all the children of Israel, who were weeping before the door of the tabernacle. 7 And when Phinees the son of Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest saw it, he rose up from the midst; of the multitude, and taking a dagger, 8 Went in after the Israelite into the brothel house, and thrust both of them through together, to wit, the man and the woman in the genital parts. And the scourge ceased from the children of Israel: 9 And there were slain four and twenty thousand men. 10 And the Lord said to Moses:

11 Phinees the son of Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest, hath turned away my wrath from the children of Israel: because he was moved with my zeal against them, that I myself might not destroy the children of Israel in my zeal. 12 Therefore say to him: Behold I give him the peace of my covenant, 13 And the covenant of the priesthood for ever shall be both to him and his seed, because he hath been zealous for his God, and hath made atonement for the wickedness of the children of Israel. 14 And the name of the Israelite, was slain with the woman of Madian, was Zambri the son of Salu, a prince the kindred and tribe of Simeon. 15 And the Madianite woman, that was slain with him, was called Cozbi the daughter of Sur, a most noble prince among the Madianites.

16 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 17 Let the Madianites find you enemies, and slay you them: 18 Because they also have acted like enemies against you, and have guilefully deceived you by the idol Phogor, and Cozbi their sister, a daughter of a prince of Madian, who was slain in the day the plague for the sacrilege of Phogor.


Chapter 26

The people are again numbered by their tribes and families.

1 After the blood of the guilty was shed, the Lord said to Moses and to Eleazar the son of Aaron, the priest: 2 Number the whole sum of the children of Israel from twenty years old and upward, by their houses and kindreds, all that are able to go forth to war. 3 Moses therefore and Eleazar the priest, being in the plains of Moab upon the Jordan over against Jericho, spoke to them that were 4 From twenty years old and upward, as the Lord had commanded: and this is the number of them: 5 Ruben the firstborn of Israel. His sons were Henoch, of whom is the family of the Henochites: and Phallu, of whom is the family of the Phalluites:

6 And Hesron, of whom is the family of the Hesronites: and Charmi, of whom is the family of the Charmites. 7 These are the families of the stock of Ruben: whose number was found to be forty-three thousand seven hundred and thirty. 8 The son of Phallu was Eliab. 9 His sons, were Namuel and Dathan and Abiron. These are Dathan and Abiron the princes of the people, that rose against Moses and Aaron in the sedition of Core, when they rebelled against the Lord: 10 And the earth opening her mouth swallowed up Core, many others dying, when the fire burned two hundred and fifty men. And there was a great miracle wrought,

11 That when Core perished, his sons did not perish. 12 The sons of Simeon by their kindreds: Namuel, of him is the family of the Namuelites: Jamin, of him is the family of the Jaminites: Jachin, of him is the family of the Jachinites: 13 Zare, of him is the family of the Zarites: Saul, of him is the family of the Saulites. 14 These are the families of the stock of Simeon, of which the whole number was twenty-two thousand two hundred. 15 The sons of Gad by their kindreds: Sephon, of hin; Is the family of the Sephonites: Aggi, of him is the family of the Aggites: Suni, of him is the family of the Sunites:

16 Ozni, of him is the family of the Oznites: Her, of him is the family of the Herites: 17 Arod, of him is the family of the Arodites: Ariel, of him is the family of the Arielites. 18 These are the families of Gad, of which the whole number was forty thousand five hundred. 19 The sons of Juda, Her and Onan, who both died in the land of Chanaan. 20 And the sons of Juda by their kindreds were: Sela, of whom is the family of the Selaites: Phares, of whom is the family of the Pharesites: Zare, of whom is the family of the Zarites.

21 Moreover the sons of Phares were: Hesron, of whom is the family of the Hesronites: and Hamul, of whom is the family of the Hamulites. 22 These are the families of Juda, of which the whole number was seventy-six thousand five hundred. 23 The sons of Issachar, by their kindreds: Thola, of whom is the family of the Tholaites: Phua, of whom is the family of the Phuaites: 24 Jasub, of whom is the family of the Jasubites: Semran, of whom is the family of the Semranites. 25 These are the kindreds of Issachar, whose number was sixty-four thousand three hundred.

26 The sons of Zabulon by their kindreds: Sared, of whom is the family of the Saredites: Elon, of whom is the family of the Elonites: Jalel, of whom is the family of the Jalelites. 27 These are the kindreds of Zabulon, whose number was sixty thousand five hundred. 28 The sons of Joseph by their kindred, Manasses and Ephraim. 29 Of Manasses was born Machir, of whom is the family of the Machirites. Machir beget Galaad, of whom is the family of the Galaadites. 30 Galaad had sons: Jezer, of whom is the family of the Jezerites: and Helec, of whom is the family of the Helecites:

31 And Asriel, of whom is the family of the Asrielites: and Sechem, of whom is the family of the Sechemites: 32 And Semida, of whom is the family of the Semidaites: and Hepher, of whom is the family of the Hepherites. 33 And Hepher was the father of Salphaad, who had no sons, but only daughters, whose names are these: Maala, and Noa, and Hegla, and Melcha, and Thersa. 34 These are the families of Manasses, and the number of them fifty-two thousand seven hundred. 35 And the sons of Ephraim by their kindreds were these: Suthala, of whom is the family of the Suthalaites: Becher, of whom is the family of the Becherites: Thehen, of whom is the family of the Thehenites.

36 Now the son of Suthala was Heran, of whom is the family of the Heranites. 37 These are the kindreds of the sons of Ephraim: whose number was thirty-two thousand five hundred. 38 These are the sons of Joseph by their families. The sons of Benjamin in their kindreds: Bela, of whom is the family of the Belaites: Asbel, of whom is the family of the Asbelites: Ahiram, of whom is the family of the Ahiramites: 39 Supham, of whom is the family of the Suphamites: Hupham, of whom is the family of the Huphamites. 40 The sons of Bela: Hered, and Noeman. Of Hered, is the family of the Heredites: of Noeman, the family of tile Noemanites.

41 These are the sons of Benjamin by their kindreds, whose number was forty-five thousand six hundred. 42 The sons of Dan by their kindreds: Suham, of whom is the family of the Suhamites: These are the kindreds of Dan by their families. 43 All were Suhamites, whose number was sixty-four thousand four hundred. 44 The sons of Aser by their kindreds: Jemna, of whom is the family of the Jemnaites: Jessui, of whom is the family of the Jessuites: Brie, of whom is the family of the Brieites. 45 The sons of Brie: Heber, of whom is the family of the Heberites: and Melchiel, of whom is the family of the Melchielites.

46 And the name of the daughter of Aser, was Sara. 47 These are the kindreds of the sons of Aser, and their number fifty-three thousand four hundred. 48 The sons of Nephtali by their kindreds: Jesiel, of whom is the family of the Jesielites: Guni, of whom is the family of the Gunites: 49 Jeser, of whom is the family of the Jeserites: Sellem, of whom is the family of the Sellemites. 50 These are the kindreds of the sons of Nephtali by their families: whose number was forty-five thousand four hundred.

51 This is the sum of the children of Israel, that were reckoned up, six hundred and one thousand seven hundred and thirty. 52 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 53 To these shall the land be divided for their possessions according to the number of names. 54 To the greater number thou shalt give a greater portion, and to the fewer a less: to every one, as they have now been reckoned up, shall a possession be delivered: 55 Yet so that by lot the land be divided to the tribe and families.

56 Whatsoever shall fall by lot, that shall be taken by the more, or the fewer. 57 This also is the number of the sons of Levi by their families: Gerson, of whom is the family of the Gersonites: Caath, of whom is the family of the Caathites: Merari, of whom is the family of the Merarites. 58 These are the families of Levi: The family of Lobni, the family of Hebroni, the family of Moholi, the family of Musi, the family of Core. Now Caath beget Amram: 59 Who had to wife Jochabed the daughter of Levi, who was horn to him in Egypt. She bore to her husband Amram sons, Aaron and Moses, and Mary their sister. 60 Of Aaron were born Nadab and Abiu, and Eleazar and Ithamar:

61 Of whom Nadab and Abiu died, when they had offered the strange fire before the Lord. 62 And all that were numbered, were twenty-three thousand males from one month old and upward: for they were not reckoned up among the children of Israel, neither was a possession given to them with the rest. 63 This is the number of the children of Israel, that were enrolled by Moses and Eleazar the priest, in the plains of Moab upon the Jordan, over against Jericho. 64 Among whom there was not one of them that were numbered before by Moses and Aaron in the desert of Sinai. 65 For the Lord had foretold that they should die in the wilderness. And none remained of them, but Caleb the son of Jephone, and Josue the son of Nun.


Chapter 27

The law of inheritance. Josue is appointed to succeed Moses.

1 Then came the daughters of Salphaad, the son of Hepher, the son of Galaad, the son of Machir, the son of Manasses, who was the son of Joseph: and their names are Maala, and Noa, and Hegla, and Melcha, and Thersa. 2 And they stood before Moses and Eleazar the priest, and all the princes of the people at the door of the tabernacle of the covenant, and said: 3 Our father died in the desert, and was not in the sedition, that was raised against the Lord under Core, but he died in his own sin: and he had no male children. Why is his name taken away out of his family, because he had no son? Give us a possession among the kinsmen of our father. 4 And Moses referred their cause to the judgment of the Lord. 5 And the Lord said to him:

6 The daughters of Salphaad demand a just thing: Give them a possession among their father's kindred, and let them succeed him in his inheritance. 7 And to the children of Israel thou shalt speak these things: 8 When a man dieth without a son, his inheritance shall pass to his daughter. 9 If he have no daughter, his brethren shall succeed him. 10 And if he have no brethren, you shall give the inheritance to his father's brethren.

11 But if he have no uncles by the father, the inheritance shall be given to them that are the next akin. And this shall be to the children of Israel sacred by a perpetual law, as the Lord hath commanded Moses. 12 The Lord also said to Moses: Go up into this mountain Abarim, and view from thence the land which I will give to the children of Israel. 13 And when thou shalt have seen it, thou also shalt go to thy people, as thy brother Aaron is gone: 14 Because you offended me in the desert of Sin in the contradiction of the multitude, neither would you sanctify me before them at the waters. These are the waters of contradiction in Cades of the desert of Sin. 15 And Moses answered him:

16 May the Lord the God of the spirits of all flesh provide a man, that may be over this multitude: 17 And may go out and in before them, and may lead them out, or bring them in: lest the people of the Lord be as sheep without a shepherd. 18 And the Lord said to him: Take Josue the son of Nun, a man in whom is the Spirit, and put thy hand upon him. 19 And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest and all the multitude: 20 And thou shalt give him precepts in the sight of all, and part of thy glory, that all the congregation of the children of Israel may hear him.

21 If any thing be to be done, Eleazar the priest shall consult the Lord for him. He and all the children of Israel with him, and the rest of the multitude shall go out and go in at his word. 22 Moses did as the Lord had commanded. And when he had taken Josue, he set him before Eleazar the priest, and all the assembly of the people, 23 And laying his hands on his head, he repeated all things that the Lord had commanded.


Chapter 28

Sacrifices are appointed as well for every day as for sabbaths, and other festivals.

1 The Lord also said to Moses: 2 Command the children of Israel, and thou shalt say to them: Offer ye my oblation and my bread, and burnt sacrifice of most sweet odour, in their due seasons. 3 These are the sacrifices which you shall offer: Two lambs of a year old without blemish every day for the perpetual holocaust: 4 One you shall offer in the morning, and the other in the evening: 5 And the tenth part of an ephi of flour, which shall be tempered with the purest oil, of the measure of the fourth part of a hin.

6 It is the continual holocaust which you offered in mount Sinai for a most sweet. odour of a sacrifice by fire to the Lord. 7 And for a libation you shall offer of wine the fourth part of a hin for every lamb in the sanctuary of the Lord. 8 And you shall offer the other lamb in like manner ill the evening according to all the rites of the morning sacrifice, and of the libations thereof, an oblation of most sweet odour to the Lord. 9 And on the sabbath day you shall offer two lambs of a year old without blemish, and two tenths of flour tempered with oil in sacrifice, and the libations, 10 Which regularly are poured out every sabbath for the perpetual holocaust.

11 And on the first day of the month you shall offer a holocaust to the Lord, two calves of the herd, one ram, and seven lambs of a year old, without blemish, 12 And three tenths of flour tempered with oil in sacrifice for every calf: and two tenths of flour tempered with oil for every ram: 13 And the tenth of a tenth of flour tempered with oil in sacrifice for every lamb. It is a holocaust of most sweet odour and an offering by fire to the Lord. 14 And these shall be the libations of wine that are to be poured out for every victim: Half a hin for every calf, a third for a ram, and a fourth for a lamb. This shall be the holocaust for every month, as they succeed one another in the course of the year. 15 A buck goat also shall be offered to the Lord for a sin offering over and above the perpetual holocaust with its libations.

16 And in the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, shall be the phase of the Lord, 17 And on the fifteenth day the solemn feast: seven days shall they eat unleavened bread. 18 And the first day of them shall be venerable and holy: you shall not do any servile work therein. 19 And you shall offer a burnt sacrifice a holocaust to the Lord, two calves of the herd, one ram, seven lambs of a year old, without blemish: 20 And for the sacrifices of every one three tenths of flour which shall be tempered with oil to every calf, and two tenths to every ram,

21 And the tenth of a tenth, to every lamb, that is to say, to all the seven lambs: 22 And one buck goat for sin, to make atonement for you, 23 Besides the morning holocaust which you shall always offer. 24 So shall you do every day of the seven days for the food of the fire, and for a most sweet odour to the Lord, which shall rise from the holocaust, and from the libations of each. 25 The seventh day also shall be most solemn and holy unto you: you shall do no servile work therein.

26 The day also of firstfruits, when after the weeks are accomplished, you shall offer new fruits to the Lord, shall be venerable and holy: you shall do no servile work therein. 27 And you shall offer a holocaust for a most sweet odour to the Lord, two calves of the herd, one ram, and seven lambs of a year old, without blemish: 28 And in the sacrifices of them three tenths of flour tempered with oil to every calf, two to every ram, 29 The tenth of a tenth to every lamb, which in all are seven lambs: a buck goat also, 30 Which is slain for expiation: besides the perpetual holocaust and the libations thereof.

31 You shall offer them all without blemish with their libations.


Chapter 29

Sacrifices for the festivals of the seventh month.

1 The first day also of the seventh month shall be venerable and holy unto you; you shall do no servile work therein, because it is the day of the sounding and of trumpets. 2 And you shall offer a holocaust for a most sweet odour to the Lord, one calf of the herd, one ram and seven lambs of a year old, without blemish. 3 And for their sacrifices, three tenths of flour tempered with oil to every calf, two tenths to a ram, 4 One tenth to a lamb, which in all are seven lambs: 5 And a buck goat for sin, which is offered for the expiation of the people,

6 Besides the holocaust of the first day of the month with the sacrifices thereof, and the perpetual holocaust with the accustomed libations. With the same ceremonies you shall offer a burnt sacrifice for a most sweet odour to the Lord. 7 The tenth day also of this seventh month shall be holy and venerable unto you, and you shall afflict your souls: you shall do no servile work therein. 8 And you shall offer a holocaust to the Lord for a most sweet odour, one calf of the herd, one ram, and seven lambs of a year old, without blemish: 9 And for their sacrifices, three tenths of flour tempered with oil to every calf, two tenths to a ram, 10 The tenth of a tenth to every lamb, which are in all seven lambs:

11 And a buck goat for sin, besides the things that are wont to be offered for sin, for expiation, and for the perpetual holocaust with their sacrifice and libations. 12 And on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, which shall be unto you holy and venerable, you shall do no servile work, but shall celebrate a solemnity to the Lord seven days. 13 And you shall offer a holocaust for a most sweet odour to the Lord, thirteen calves of the herd, two rams, and fourteen lambs of a year old, without blemish: 14 And for their libations three tenths of flour tempered with oil to every calf, being in all thirteen calves: and two tenths to each ram, being two rams, 15 And the tenth of a tenth to every lamb, being in all fourteen lambs:

16 And a buck goat for sin, besides the perpetual holocaust, and the sacrifice and the libation thereof. 17 On the second day you shall offer twelve calves of the herd, two rams and fourteen lambs of a year old, without blemish: 18 And the sacrifices and the libations for every one, for the calves and for the rams and for the lambs you shall duly celebrate: 19 And a buck goat for a sin offering besides the perpetual holocaust, and the sacrifice and the libation thereof. 20 The third day you shall offer eleven calves, two rams, and fourteen lambs of a year old, without blemish:

21 And the sacrifices and the libations of every one for the calves and for the rams and for the lambs you shall offer according to the rite: 22 And a buck goat for sin, besides the perpetual holocaust, and the sacrifice, and the libation thereof. 23 The fourth day you shall offer tell calves, two rams, and fourteen lambs of a year old, without blemish: 24 And the sacrifices and the libations of every one for the calves and for the rams and for the lambs you shall celebrate in right manner: 25 And a buck goat for sin, besides the perpetual holocaust, and the sacrifice and the libation thereof.

26 The fifth day you shall offer nine calves, two rams, and fourteen lambs of a year old, without blemish: 27 And the sacrifices and the libations of every one for the calves and for the rams and for the lambs you shall celebrate according to the rite: 28 And a buck goat for sin, besides the perpetual holocaust, and the sacrifice and the libation thereof. 29 The sixth day you shall offer eight calves, two rams, and fourteen lambs of a year old, without blemish: 30 And the sacrifices and the libations of every one for the calves and for the rams and for the lambs you shall celebrate according to the rite:

31 And a buck goat for sin, besides the perpetual holocaust, and the sacrifice and the libation thereof. 32 The seventh day you shall offer seven calves and two rams, and fourteen lambs of a year old, without blemish: 33 And the sacrifices and the libations of every one for the calves and for the rams and for the lambs you shall celebrate according to the rite: 34 And a buck goat for sin, besides the perpetual holocaust, and the sacrifice and the libation thereof. 35 On the eighth day, which is moat solemn, you shall do no servile work:

36 But you shall offer a holocaust for a most sweet odour to the Lord, one calf, one ram, and seven lambs of a year old, without blemish: 37 And the sacrifices and the libations of every one for the calves and for the rams and for the lambs you shall celebrate according to the rite: 38 And a buck goat for sin, besides the perpetual holocaust, and the sacrifice and the libation thereof. 39 These things shall you offer to the Lord in your solemnities: besides your vows and voluntary oblations for holocaust, for sacrifice, for libation, and for victims of peace offerings.


Chapter 30

Of vows and oaths: and their obligation.

1 And Moses told the children of Israel all that the Lord had commanded him: 2 And he said to the princes of the tribes of the children of Israel: This is the word that the Lord hath commanded: 3 If any man make a vow to the Lord, or bind himself by an oath: he shall not make his word void but shall fulfill all that he promised. 4 If a woman vow any thing, and bind herself by an oath, being in her father's house, and but yet a girl in age: if her father knew the vow that she hath promised, and the oath wherewith she hath bound her soul, and held his peace, she shall be bound by the vow: 5 Whatsoever she promised and swore, she shall fulfill in deed.

6 But if her father, immediately as soon as he heard it, gainsaid it, both her vows and her oaths shall be void, neither shall she be bound to what she promised, because her father hath gainsaid it. 7 If she have a husband, and shall vow any thing, and the word once going out of her mouth shall bind her soul by an oath: 8 The day that her husband shall hear it, and not gainsay it, she shall be bound to the vow, and shall give whatsoever she promised. 9 But if as soon as he heareth he gainsay it, and make her promises and the words wherewith she had bound her soul of no effect: the Lord will forgive her. 10 The widow, and she that is divorced, shall fulfill whatsoever they vow.

11 If the wife in the house of her husband, hath bound herself by vow and by oath, 12 If her husband hear, and hold his peace, and doth not disallow the promise, she shall accomplish whatsoever she had promised. 13 But if forthwith he gainsay it, she shall not be bound by the promise: because her husband gainsaid it, and the Lord will be merciful to her. 14 If she vow and bind herself by oath, to afflict her soul by fasting, or abstinence from other things, it shall depend on the will of her husband, whether she shall do it, or not do it. 15 But if the husband hearing it hold his peace, and defer the declaring his mind till another day: whatsoever she had vowed and promised, she shall fulfill: because immediately as he heard it, he held his peace.

16 But if he gainsay it after that he knew it, he shall bear her iniquity. 17 These are the laws which the Lord appointed to Moses between the husband and the wife, between the father and the daughter that is as yet but a girl in age, or that abideth in her father's house.


Chapter 31

The Madianites are slain for having drawn the people of Israel into sin. The dividing of the booty.

1 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 2 Revenge first the children of Israel on the Madianites, and so thou shalt be gathered to thy people. 3 And Moses forthwith said: Arm of you men to fight, who may take the revenge of the Lord on the Madianites. 4 Let a thousand men be chosen out of every tribe of Israel to be sent to the war. 5 And they gave a thousand of every tribe, that is to say, twelve thousand men well appointed for battle.

6 And Moses sent them with Phinees the son of Eleazar the priest, and he delivered to him the holy vessels, and the trumpets to sound. 7 And when they had fought against the Madianites and had overcome them, they slew all the men. 8 And their kings Evi, and Recem, and Sur, and Hur, and Rebe, five princes of the nation: Balaam also the son of Beer they killed with the sword. 9 And they took their women, and their children captives, and all their cattle, and all their goods: and all their possessions they plundered: 10 And all their cities, and their villages, and castles, they burned.

11 And they carried away the booty, and all that they had taken both of men and of beasts. 12 And they brought them to Moses, and Eleazar the priest, and to all the multitude of the children of Israel. But the rest of the things for use they carried to the camp on the plains of Moab, beside the Jordan over against Jericho. 13 And Moses and Eleazar the priest and all the princes of the synagogue went forth to meet them without the camp. 14 And Moses being angry with the chief officers of the army, the tribunes, and the centurions that were come from the battle, 15 Said: Why have you saved the women?

16 Are not these they, that deceived the children of Israel by the counsel of Balaam, and made you transgress against the Lord by the sin of Phogor, for which also the people was punished? 17 Therefore kill all that are of the male sex, even of the children: and put to death the women, that have carnally known men. 18 But the girls, and all the women that are virgins save for yourselves: 19 And stay without the camp seven days. He that hath killed a man, or touched one that is killed, shall be purified the third day and the seventh day. 20 And of all the spoil, every garment, or vessel, or any thing made for use, of the skins, or hair of goats, or of wood, shall be purified.

16 "The sin of Phogor"... The sin committed in the worship of Beelphegor.

17 "Of the children"... Women and children, ordinarily speaking, were not to be killed in war, Deut. 20. 14. But the great Lord of life and death was pleased to order it otherwise in the present case, in detestation of the wickedness of this people, who by the counsel of Balaam, had sent their women among the Israelites on purpose to draw them from God.

21 Eleazar also the priest spoke to the men of the army, that had fought, in this manner: This is the ordinance of the law, which the Lord hath commanded Moses: 22 Gold, and silver, and brass, and iron, and lend, and tin, 23 And all that may pass through the fire, shall be purified by fire, but whatsoever cannot abide the fire, shall be sanctified with the water of expiation: 24 And you shall wash your garments the seventh day, and being purified, you shall afterwards enter into the camp. 25 And the Lord said to Moses:

26 Take the sum of the things that were taken both of man and beast, thou and Eleazar the priest and the princes of the multitude: 27 And thou shalt divide the spoil equally, between them that fought and went out to the war, and between the rest of the multitude. 28 And thou shalt separate a portion to the Lord from them that fought and were in the battle, one soul of five hundred as well of persons as of oxen and asses and sheep. 29 And thou shalt give it to Eleazar the priest, because they are the firstfruits of the Lord. 30 Out of the moiety also of the children of Israel thou shalt take the fiftieth head of persons, and of oxen, and asses, and sheep, and of all beasts, and thou shalt give them to the Levites that watch in the charge of the tabernacle of the Lord.

31 And Moses and Eleazar did as the Lord had commanded. 32 And the spoil which the army had taken, was six hundred seventy-five thousand sheep, 33 Seventy-two thousand oxen, 34 Sixty-one thousand asses: 35 And thirty-two thousand persons of the female sex, that had not known men.

36 And one half was given to them that had been in the battle, to wit, three hundred thirty-seven thousand five hundred sheep: 37 Out of which, for the portion of the Lord, were reckoned six hundred seventy-five sheep. 38 And out of the thirty-six thousand oxen, seventy-two oxen: 39 Out of the thirty thousand five hundred asses, sixty-one asses: 40 Out of the sixteen thousand persons, there fell to the portion of the Lord, thirty-two souls.

41 And Moses delivered the number of the firstfruits of the Lord to Eleazar the priest, as had been commanded him, 42 Out of the half of the children of Israel, which he had separated for them that had been in the battle. 43 But out of the half that fell to the rest of the multitude, that is to say, out of the three hundred thirty-seven thousand five hundred sheep, 44 And out of the thirty-six thousand oxen, 45 And out of the thirty thousand five hundred asses,

46 And out of the sixteen thousand persons, 47 Moses took the fiftieth head, and gave it to the Levites that watched in the tabernacle of the Lord, as the Lord had commanded. 48 And when the commanders of the army, and the tribunes and centurions were come to Moses, they said: 49 We thy servants have reckoned up the number of the fighting men, whom we had under our hand, and not so much as one was wanting. 50 Therefore we offer as gifts to the Lord what gold every one of us could find in the booty, in garters and tablets, rings and bracelets, and chains, that thou mayst pray to the Lord for us.

51 And Moses and Eleazar the priest received all the gold in divers kinds, 52 In weight sixteen thousand seven hundred and fifty sicles, from the tribunes and from the centurions. 53 For that which every one had taken in the booty was his own. 54 And that which was received they brought into the tabernacle of the testimony, for a memorial of the children of Israel before the Lord.


Chapter 32

The tribes of Ruben and Gad, and half of the tribe of Manasses, receive their inheritance on the east side of Jordan, upon conditions approved of by Moses.

1 And the sons of Ruben and Gad had many flocks of cattle, and their substance in beasts was infinite. And when they saw the lands of Jazer and Galaad fit for feeding cattle, 2 They came to Moses and Eleazar the priest, and the princes of the multitude, and said: 3 Ataroth, and Dibon, and Jazer, and Nemra, Hesebon, and Eleale, and Saban, and Nebo, and Beon, 4 The land, which the Lord hath conquered in the sight of the children of Israel, is a very fertile soil for the feeding of beasts: and we thy servants have very much cattle: 5 And we pray thee, if we have found favour in thy sight, that thou give it to us thy servants in possession, and make us not pass over the Jordan.

6 And Moses answered them: What, shall your brethren go to fight, and will you sit here? 7 Why do ye overturn the minds of the children of Israel, that they may not dare to pass into the place which the Lord hath given them? 8 Was it not thus your fathers did, when I sent from Cadesbarne to view the land? 9 And when they were come as far as the valley of the cluster, having viewed all the country, they overturned the hearts of the children of Israel, that they should not enter into the coasts, which the Lord gave them. 10 And he swore in his anger, saying:

11 If these men, that came up out of Egypt, from twenty years old and upward, shall see the land, which I promised with an oath to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: because they would not follow me, 12 Except Caleb the son of Jephone the Cenezite, and Josue the son of Nun: these have fulfilled my will. 13 And the Lord being angry against Israel, led them about through the desert forty years, until the whole generation, that had done evil in his sight, was consumed. 14 And behold, said he, you are risen up instead of your fathers, the increase and offspring of sinful men, to augment the fury of the Lord against Israel. 15 For if you will not follow him, he will leave the people in the wilderness, and you shall be the cause of the destruction of all.

16 But they coming near, said: We will make sheepfolds, and stalls for our cattle, and strong cities for our children: 17 And we ourselves will go armed and ready for battle before the children of Israel, until we bring them in unto their places. Our little ones, and all we have, shall be in walled cities, for fear of the ambushes of the inhabitants. 18 We will not return into our houses until the children of Israel possess their inheritance: 19 Neither will we seek any thing beyond the Jordan, because we have already our possession on the east side thereof, 20 And Moses said to them: If you do what you promise, go on well appointed for war before the Lord:

21 And let every fighting man pass over the Jordan, until the Lord overthrow his enemies: 22 And all the land be brought under him, then shall you be blameless before the Lord and before Israel, and you shall obtain the countries that you desire, before the Lord. 23 But if you do not what you say, no man can doubt but you sin against God: and know ye, that your sin shall overtake you. 24 Build therefore cities for your children, and folds and stalls for your sheep and beasts, and accomplish what you have promised. 25 And the children of Gad and Ruben said to Moses: We are thy servants, we will do what my lord commandeth.

26 We will leave our children, and our wives and sheep and cattle, in the cities of Galaad: 27 And we thy servants all well appointed will march on to the war, as thou, my lord, speakest. 28 Moses therefore commanded Eleazar the priest, and Josue the son of Nun, and the princes of the families of all the tribes of Israel, and said to them: 29 If the children of Gad, and the children of Ruben pass with you over the Jordan, all armed for war before the Lord, and the land be made subject to you: give them Galaad in possession. 30 But if they will not pass armed with you into the land of Chanaan, let them receive places to dwell in among you.

31 And the children of Gad, and the children of Ruben answered: As the Lord hath spoken to his servants, so will we do: 32 We will go armed before the Lord into the land of Chanaan, and we confess that we have already received our possession beyond the Jordan. 33 Moses therefore gave to the children of Cad and of Ruben, and to the half tribe of Manasses the son of Joseph, the kingdom of Sehon king of the Amorrhites, and the kingdom of Og king of Basan, and their land and the cities thereof round about. 34 And the sons of Cad built Dibon, and Ataroth, and Aroer, 35 And Etroth, and Sophan, and Jazer, and Jegbaa,

36 And Bethnemra, and Betharan, fenced cities, and folds for their cattle. 37 But the children of Ruben built Hesebon, and Eleale, and Cariathaim, 38 And Nabo, and Baalmeon (their names being changed) and Sabama: giving names to the cities which they had built. 39 Moreover the children of Machir, the son of Manasses, went into Galaad, and wasted it, cutting off the Amorrhites, the inhabitants thereof. 40 And Moses gave the land of Galaad to Machir the son of Manasses, and he dwelt in it.

41 And Jair the son of Manasses went, and took the villages thereof, and he called them Havoth Jair, that is to say, the villages of Jair. 42 Nobe also went, and took Canath with the villages thereof: and he called it by his own name, Nobe.


Chapter 33

The mansions or journeys of the children of Israel towards the land of promise.

1 These are the mansions of the children of Israel, who went out of Egypt by their troops under the conduct of Moses and Aaron, 2 Which Moses wrote down according to the places of their encamping, which they changed by the commandment of the Lord. 3 Now the children of Israel departed from Ramesses the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month, the day after the phase, with a mighty hand, in the eight of all the Egyptians, 4 Who were burying their firstborn, whom the Lord had slain (upon their gods also he had executed vengeance,) 5 And they camped in Soccoth.

1 "The mansions"... These mansions, or journeys of the children of Israel from Egypt to the land of promise, were figures, according to the fathers, of the steps and degrees by which Christians leaving sin are to advance from virtue to virtue, till they come to the heavenly mansions, after this life, to see and enjoy God.

6 And from Soccoth they came into Etham, which is in the uttermost borders of the wilderness. 7 Departing from thence they came over against Phihahiroth, which looketh towards Beelsephon, and they camped before Magdalum. 8 And departing from Phihahiroth, they passed through the midst of the sea into the wilderness: and having marched three days through the desert of Etham, they camped in Mara. 9 And departing from Mara, they came into Elim, where there were twelve fountains of waters, and seventy palm trees: and there they camped. 10 But departing from thence also, they pitched their tents by the Red Sea. And departing from the Red Sea,

11 They camped in the desert of Sin. 12 And they removed from thence, and came to Daphca. 13 And departing from Daphca, they camped in Alus. 14 And departing from Alus, they pitched their tents in Raphidim, where the people wanted water to drink. 15 And departing from Raphidim, they camped in the desert of Sinai.

16 But departing also from the desert of Sinai, they came to the graves of lust. 17 And departing from the graves of lust, they camped in Haseroth. 18 And from Haseroth they came to Rethma. 19 And departing from Rethma, they camped in Remmomphares. 20 And they departed from thence and came to Lebna.

21 Removing from Lebna they camped in Ressa. 22 And departing from Ressa, they came to Ceelatha. 23 And they removed from thence and camped in the mountain Sepher. 24 Departing from the mountain Sepher, they came to Arada. 25 From thence they went and camped in Maceloth.

26 And departing from Maceloth, they came to Thahath. 27 Removing from Thahath they camped in Thare. 28 And they departed from thence, and pitched their tents in Methca. 29 And removing from Methca, they camped in Hesmona. 30 And departing from Hesmona, they came to Moseroth.

31 And removing from Moseroth, they camped in Benejaacan. 32 And departing from Benejaacan, they came to mount Gadgad. 33 From thence they went and camped in Jetebatha. 34 And from Jetebatha they came to Hebrona. 35 And departing from Hebrona, they camped in Asiongaber.

36 They removed from thence and came into the desert of Sin, which is Cades. 37 And departing from Cades, they camped in mount Her, in the uttermost borders of the land of Edom. 38 And Aaron the priest went up into mount Hor at the commandment of the Lord: and there he died in the fortieth year of the coming forth of the children of Israel out of Egypt, the fifth month, the first day of the month, 39 When he was a hundred and twenty-three years old. 40 And king Arad the Chanaanite, who dwelt towards the south, heard that the children of Israel were come to the land of Chanaan.

41 And they departed from mount Her, and camped in Salmona. 42 From whence they removed and came to Phunon. 43 And departing from Phunon, they camped in Oboth. 44 And from Oboth they came to Ijeabarim, which is in the borders of the Moabites. 45 And departing from Ijeabarim they pitched their tents in Dibongab.

46 From thence they went and camped in Helmondeblathaim. 47 And departing from Helmondeblathaim, they came to the mountains of Abarim over against Nabo. 48 And departing from the mountains of Abarim, they passed to the plains of Moab, by the Jordan, over against Jericho. 49 And there they camped from Bethsi moth even to Ablesatim in the plains of the Moabites, 50 Where the Lord said to Moses:

51 Command the children of Israel, and say to them: When you shall have passed over the Jordan, entering into the land of Chanaan, 52 Destroy all the inhabitants of that land: beat down their pillars, and break in pieces their statues, and waste all their high places, 53 Cleansing the land, and dwelling in it. For I have given it you for a possession. 54 And you shall divide it among you by lot. To the more you shall give a larger part, and to the fewer a lesser. To every one as the lot shall fall, so shall the inheritance be given. The possession shall be divided by the tribes and the families. 55 But if you will not kill the inhabitants of the land: they that remain, shall be unto you as nails in your eyes, and spears in your sides, and they shall be your adversaries in the land of your habitation.

56 And whatsoever I had thought to do to them, I will do to you.


Chapter 34

The limits of Chanaan; with the names of the men that make the division of it.

1 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 2 Command the children of Israel, and then shalt say to them: When you are entered into the land of Chanaan, and it shall be fallen into your possession by lot, it shall be bounded by these limits: 3 The south side shall begin from the wilderness of Sin, which is by Edom: and shall have the most salt sea for its furthest limits eastward: 4 Which limits shall go round on the south side by the ascent of the Scorpion and so into Senna, and reach toward the south as far as Cadesbarne, from whence the frontiers shall go out to the town called Adar, and shall reach as far as Asemona. 5 And the limits shall fetch a compass from Asemona to the torrent of Egypt, and shall end in the shore of the great sea.

3 "The most salt sea"... The lake of Sodom, otherwise called the Dead Sea.

4 "The Scorpion"... A mountain so called from having a great number of scorpions.

5 "The great sea"... The Mediterranean.

6 And the west side shall begin from the great sea, and the same shall be the end thereof. 7 But toward the north side the borders shall begin from the great sea, reaching to the most high mountain, 8 From which they shall come to Emath, as far as the borders of Sedada: 9 And the limits shall go as far as Zephrona, and the village of Enan. These shall be the borders on the north side. 10 From thence they shall mark out the bounds towards the east side from the village of Enan unto Sephama.

7 "The most high mountain"... Libanus.

11 And from Sephama the bounds shall go down to Rebla over against the fountain of Daphnis: from thence they shall come eastward to the sea of Cenereth, 12 And shall reach as far as the Jordan, and at the last shall be closed in by the most salt sea. This shall be your land with its borders round about. 13 And Moses commanded the children of Israel, saying: This shall be the land which you shall possess by lot, and which the Lord hath commanded to be given to the nine tribes, and to the half tribe. 14 For the tribe of the children of Ruben by their families, and the tribe of the children of Gad according to the number of their kindreds, and half of the tribe of Manasses, 15 That is, two tribes and a half, have received their portion beyond the Jordan over against Jericho at the east side.

11 "Sea of Cenereth"... This is the sea of Galilee, illustrated by the miracles of our Lord.

16 And the Lord said to Moses: 17 These are the names of the men, that shall divide the land unto you: Eleazar the priest, and Josue the son of Nun, 18 And one prince of every tribe, 19 Whose names are these: Of the tribe of Juda, Caleb the son of Jephone. 20 Of the tribe of Simeon, Samuel the son of Ammiud.

21 Of the tribe of Benjamin, Elidad the son of Chaselon. 22 Of the tribe of the children of Dan, Bocci the son of Jogli. 23 Of the children of Joseph of the tribe of Manasses, Hanniel the son of Ephod. 24 Of the tribe of Ephraim, Camuel the son of Sephtan. 25 Of the tribe of Zabulon, Elisaphan the son of Pharnach.

26 Of the tribe of Issachar, Phaltiel the prince, the son of Ozan. 27 Of the tribe of Aser, Ahiud the son of Salomi. 28 Of the tribe of Nephtali: Phedael the son of Ammiud. 29 These are they whom the Lord hath commanded to divide the land of Chanaan to the children of Israel.


Chapter 35

Cities are appointed for the Levites. Of which six are to be the cities of refuge.

1 And the Lord spoke these things also to Moses in the plains of Moab by the Jordan, over against Jericho: 2 Command the children of Israel that they give to the Levites out of their possessions, 3 Cities to dwell in, and their suburbs round about: that they may abide in the towns, and the suburbs may be for their cattle and beasts: 4 Which suburbs shall reach from the walls of the cities outward, a thousand paces on every side: 5 Toward the east shall be two thousand cubits: and toward the south in like manner shall be two thousand cubits: toward the sea also, which looketh to the west, shall be the same extent: and the north side shall be bounded with the like limits. And the cities shall be in the midst, and the suburbs without.

6 And among the cities, which you shall give to the Levites, six shall be separated for refuge to fugitives, that he who hath shed blood may flee to them: and besides these there shall be other forty-two cities, 7 That is, in all forty-eight with their suburbs. 8 And of these cities which shall be given out of the possessions of the children of Israel, from them that have more, more shall be taken: and from them that have less, fewer. Each shall give towns to the Levites according to the extent of their inheritance. 9 The Lord said to Moses: 10 Speak to the children of Israel, and thou shalt say to them: When you shall have passed over the Jordan into the land of Chanaan,

11 Determine what cities shall be for the refuge of fugitives, who have shed blood against their will. 12 And when the fugitive shall be in them, the kinsman of him that is slain may not have power to kill him, until he stand before the multitude, and his cause be judged. 13 And of those cities, that are separated for the refuge of fugitives, 14 Three shall be beyond the Jordan, and three in the land of Chanaan, 15 As well for the children of Israel as for strangers and sojourners, that he may flee to them, who hath shed blood against his will.

16 If any man strike with iron, and he die that was struck: he shall be guilty of murder, and he himself shall die. 17 If he throw a stone, and he that is struck die: he shall be punished in the same manner. 18 If he that is struck with wood die: he shall be revenged by the blood of him that struck him. 19 The kinsman of him that was slain, shall kill the murderer: as soon as he apprehendeth him, he shall kill him. 20 If through hatred any one push a man, or fling any thing at him with ill design:

21 Or being his enemy, strike; him with his hand, and he die: the striker shall be guilty of murder: the kinsman of him that was slain as soon as he findeth him, shall kill him. 22 But if by chance medley, and without hatred, 23 And enmity, he do any of these things, 24 And this be proved in the hearing of the people, and the cause be debated between him that struck, and the next of kin: 25 The innocent shall be delivered from the hand of the revenger, and shall be brought back by sentence into the city, to which he had fled, and he shall abide there until the death of the high priest, that is anointed with the holy oil.

25 "Until the death"... This mystically signified that our deliverance was to be effected by the death of Christ, the high priest and the anointed of God.

26 If the murderer be found without the limits of the cities that are appointed for the banished, 27 And be struck by him that is the avenger of blood: he shall not be guilty that killed him. 28 For the fugitive ought to have stayed in the city until the death of the high priest: and after he is dead, then shall the manslayer return to his own country. 29 These things shall be perpetual, and for an ordinance in all your dwellings. 30 The murderer shall be punished by witnesses: none shall be condemned upon the evidence of one man.

31 You shall not take money of him that is guilty of blood, but he shall die forthwith. 32 The banished and fugitives before the death of the high priest may by no means return into their own cities. 33 Defile not the land of your habitation, which is stained with the blood of the innocent: neither can it otherwise be expiated, but by his blood that hath shed the blood of another. 34 And thus shall your possession he cleansed, myself abiding with you. For I am the Lord that dwell among the children of Israel.


Chapter 36

That the inheritances may not be alienated from one tribe to another, all are to marry within their own tribes.

1 And the princes of the families of Galaad, the son of Machir, the son of Manasses, of the stock Of the children of Joseph, came and spoke to Moses before the princes of Israel, and said: 2 The Lord hath commanded thee, my lord, that thou shouldst divide the land by lot to the children of Israel, and that thou shouldst give to the daughters of Salphaad our brother the possession due to their father: 3 Now if men of another tribe take them to wives, their possession will follow them, and being transferred to another tribe, will be a diminishing of our inheritance. 4 And so it shall come to pass, that when the jubilee, that is, the fiftieth year of remission, is come, the distribution made by the lots shall be confounded, and the possession of the one shall pass to the others. 5 Moses answered the children of Israel, and said by the command of the Lord: The tribe of the children of Joseph hath spoken rightly.

6 And this is the law promulgated by the Lord touching the daughters of Salphaad: Let them marry to whom they will, only so that it be to men of their own tribe. 7 Lest the possession of the children of Israel be mingled from tribe to tribe. For all men shall marry wives of their own tribe and kindred: 8 And all women shall take husbands of the same tribe: that the inheritance may remain in the families, 9 And that the tribes be not mingled one with another, but remain so 10 As they were separated by the Lord. And the daughters of Salphaad did as was commanded:

11 And Maala, and Thersa, and Hegla, and Melcha, and Noa were married to the sons of their uncle by their father, 12 Of the family of Manasses, who was the son of Joseph: and the possession that had been allotted to them, remained in the tribe and family of their father. 13 These are the commandments and judgments, which the Lord commanded by the hand of Moses to the children of Israel, in the plains of Moab upon the Jordan over against Jericho.

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